Decay of democratic regime politicaleconomic crises

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Decay of democratic regime- political/economic crises undermined democratic institutionsCompetitive authoritarianism stuck in some cases where elites couldn’t get rid of pluralismPrzeworsski and Limongi: Modernization Theories and FactsDemocracy more likely to emerge as countries develop economically BUT economic develop has not been seen to bring down dictatorshipsoModernization is the process, democratization is the final stageoIncome/stable economy impacts survival of democracy- not its creationDemocracy may be established independently of economic development, but it’s more likely to survive in developed countriesType of government matters less than the degree/stabilityDemocracy is an outcome of actions, not just conditionsWhy do people mobilize- or not?Mobilization can change everything but is rare-why?Bases for mobilizationo“Workers of the world, unite!” (1970s- Marxist)Class interests, not conscious of exploitationo“Subsistence ethics” and moral economy (Scott)oIndividual interests and rational choice (Popkin)Peasants rebel more than Marx thought**Moral economy highlights the ethical base of political mobilization, rational choicehighlights obstacles to mobilization. In advanced capitalist societies, the expressive base of mobilization often trumps community norms and individual interests.Moral EconomyoCapitalist and state extraction cause revolts- peasants are left with nothing (Scott)Obstacles to collective actiono“Subsistence ethic” as collective insurance, but are free riders (Popkin)oRational, self-interested individuals will not act for group interests w/o coercion or a special caseExpressive base of mobilizationoFragmented interests and fluid identities make mobilization more of an expression, less driven by “objective” interests and identitiesCapitalism makes everyone and no one a peasant- anger can flare up quickly, but there is a lack of a group identityScott: The Moral Economy of the Peasant“Subsistence ethic”- formed from living close to the margin; rooted in economic practices and social exchanges of peasant societiesMoral economy- notions of justice and exploitationIn very poor countries w/ a booming export economy, income inequality is increasingPopkin: The Rational Peasant
Moral economists- focus on relations between the economy and social institutions; link protests to loss of subsistence, security and welfare by the peasantrySocial revolution- the result of capitalist legal and social relationshipsPre-capitalist society- village was key institution that gave security to peasantsIntroduction of political economy- new approach that involved investment logic, trade offs, individual decision makingMany rational individuals does not produce a rational village- free rider problemPeople are rational, not necessarily just self-interestedWill revolt if can’t subsistWhy do political parties differ so much across time and space?

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