Causes brain abnormalities excessive dopamine activity stress Gender Dysphoria

Causes brain abnormalities excessive dopamine

This preview shows page 8 - 10 out of 32 pages.

Causes- brain abnormalities, excessive dopamine activity, stress Gender Dysphoria (gender identity disorder)- problems accepting one’s identity as male or female. They may seek gender reassignment surgery. Personality Disorders- enduring pattern of experience and behavior that differs greatly from the expectations of the individual’s culture Cluster A- odd, eccentric paranoid (constantly questioning people’s motives), schizoid (detached from social relationships), schizotypal (acute discomfort and reduced capacity for close relationships, and eccentric behaviors) Cluster B- dramatic, emotional, erratic antisocial (lacks remorse and empathy, willingness to lie, cheat, steal, and break the law), borderline (reckless behavior, mood swings, feelings of emptiness, fear of abandonment), histrionic (attention-seeking), narcissistic (self-importance and self-absorption) Cluster C- fearful avoidant (hypersensitivity to rejection), dependent (clinging behavior, excessive need to be taken care of), obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (extreme control freak- holds themselves and others to very high standards)
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METHODS of THERAPIES- Chapter 13 Features of effective treatment- client, capable therapist, client-therapist relationship, theoretical explanation of client’s problem, set procedures to approach the problem Therapy Types Psychodynamic (Freud) exposing the unconscious motives Free association- what’s on your mind currently Resistance- stumbling on your words, being late or missing appointments Dream analysis- Manifest vs. Latent, symbolization, interpretation Freudian slips- Mistakes in actions, speech, or voiced thoughts that were meant to stay private, reveal underlying or unconscious impulses or desires Transference- when a person reenacts feelings for significant others towards the therapist Counter-transference can result from this, where the therapist reenacts their feelings for others towards the client Psychodynamic therapies are not often used because they are not testable, Freud created it so nothing can falsify his conclusions (defense mechanisms i.e. repression, regression, reaction formation, etc,.) Client-Centered (Rogers) leading someone back to self-actualization 3 key ingredients for a healing therapeutic relationship are genuineness, acceptance, and empathy from the therapist therapists acts as a listener, and revalidates the client’s incongruent feelings to help guide them back to congruence Gestalt (Experiential) Therapy- Fritz Perls therapist directs client to get in touch with their true feelings, and resolve unfinished business methods may be to have the client talk to an empty chair and work through their true feelings that they may not even be aware of therapist questions the client in the here and now Behavior (Learning) a collection of methods based on learning theory to fix a behavioral problem Classical Conditioning- changing the way the client reacts to stimuli in their environment
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