This creative side of mar keting is what can also be

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keting science but this is very much a misconception. This creative side of mar- keting is what can also be referred to as the soft science of marketing. It is very clear that the analysis, which is used to inform the creative together make up the mar- keting science concept, incorporating both hard and soft sciences. Later within this chapter, we will go on determine the sustainability of both hard and soft sciences within marketing, respectively. As we continue with the current theme, it is worth highlighting the challenging notion of marketing as a science. In examining this concept, especially in the light of sustainability, we are faced with some interesting, yet dif fi cult elements to comprehend. As it has just been previously mentioned marketing is informed by both hard and soft sciences. These come under several and varied scienti fi c cate- gories as portrayed within Fig. 2 . These interact in a complex manner which makes it dif fi cult to draw clear conclusions as what is hard science and what is soft science. Figure 3 illustrates 3 distinctive elements of marketing which are characterised by both hard and soft sciences (and a combination of the both) (Fig. 4 ). Momentum Risk of myopia Aggregation Data Data user Exploration data science controlled experiments metrics and dashboards big data uncertainty serendipity future hypotheses small data certainty segmentation past hypotheses (Adapted from Brinker 2013) Fig. 1 Hard marketing science use 78 C.F. Amos et al.
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With these diagrams we begin to comprehend how the distinction between hard and soft sciences becomes somewhat fuzzy and dif fi cult to distinguish. We are able to successfully dispel the myth of marketing science being interpreted as a Economics Chemistry Physics Psychology Sociology Anthropology Hard Sciences Soft Sciences Fig. 2 Marketing Hard and soft sciences 0 12.5 25 37.5 50 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 % All Hard Science Mix of Hard and Soft Science All Soft Science 15% 28% 24% 10% 15% 2% 1% 4% 1% 1% 0% 1% 5% 3% 4% 41% 38% 10% 11% 14% 14% 21% 3% 2% 1% 2% Branding / Messaging (Mean 6:1) Campaign Creation (Mean 5.4) Marketing Measurement / Reporting (Mean 3:2) (Adapted from Eloqua (2013) Fig. 3 Modern marketing More hard science or soft science Branding / Messaging (Mean 6:1) Campaign Creation (Mean 5.4) Marketing Measurement / Reporting (Mean 3:2) Research Analysis of customer needs Strategy Development Branding Opportunity Innovation Advertising Concept Solutions (Adapted from Brinker 2013) Fig. 4 Ratio of hard to soft sciences regarding speci fi c marketing activities The Virtuous Circle: Hard Sustainable Science 79
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formulaically predictable phenomenon and is in actual fact a mix of both hard and soft sciences (Brinker 2013 ). However, in establishing this, we enter a more philosophical debate into the science of marketing. The hard dimension of mar- keting science devotes itself to the accurate measurement of empirical evidence, simply a mechanism for determining a means to an end (Brinker 2013 ).
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  • Sustainable fashion, Sandra Roos

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