exam_3_review part 2 with answers

271 more likely to admit pregnancy to others 272

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27.1. More likely to admit pregnancy to others. 27.2. Desire child to contact them but don’t initiate search. 28. What hormone is measured in pregnancy tests and why are pregnancy tests uncertain in early pregnancy? 28.1. HCG is measured and is similar to LH so the test is uncertain until HCG levels are higher than LH levels would ever be in a cycling woman 29. What makes Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG)? 29.1. The fertilized ovum and later the placenta 30. What does HCG do? 30.1. Keeps the corpus luteum alive 31. Where does the placenta come from? 31.1. The trophoblast of the fertilized ovum and is genetically similar to the fetus not the mother. 32. How are nutrients/waste transferred across the placenta? 32.1. Diffusion across a concentration gradient 33. What major hormones does the placenta produce? 33.1. Estrogen (estrial) 33.2. progesterone 33.3. Human Placental Lactogen (and a number of other hormones similar to those produced by the anterior pituitary) 34. What is unique about how the placenta produces estrial?
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34.1. It can not make estrial from cholesterol so it makes it from androstenedione provided by the fetal adrenal gland. 35. What does HPL do? 35.1. increase number of alveoli in mammary glands 35.2. make alveoli functional 36. What comes from the ectoderm? 36.1. Central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, and epidermis 37. What comes from the mesoderm? 37.1. Skeletal system, musculature, vasculature 38. What comes from the endoderm? 38.1. Gut, lungs, liver 39. During which stage of fetal development is the fetus most sensitive to damage from drugs and other problems? 39.1. Organogenesis – during the first trimester 40. What happens to the uterus during pregnancy? 40.1. Increases in size, increase in size and number of muscle cells, increase in number and size of blood vessels 41. What is Goodell’s Sign? 41.1. the softening of the cervix early in pregnancy due to engorgement with blood 42. What happens to the cervix during labor? 42.1. It effaces (shortens) and the os dilates 43. What is morning sickness? 43.1. Nausea associated with hunger pains (not just in the morning) that is typically worst in first trimester. 44. What can happen if a woman has high blood pressure during pregnancy? 44.1. High blood pressure is a condition called toxemia that can develop into pre-eclampsia. 45. What can result from eclampsia? 45.1. Convulsions, coma, or death 46. What does relaxin do? 46.1. Softens ligament letting joints widen which reduces the risk of broken bones during labor and delivery 47. What produces relaxin? 47.1. Corpus luteum and placenta 48. What is one theory about the cause of labor onset? 48.1. The aging placenta can no longer produce enough estrogen and progesterone to maintain the pregnancy (drop in progesterone enables coordinated contractions of the uterus). 49. What are three common signs that labor has begun?
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  • Fall '07
  • Kenney
  • Psychology, estrogen, medical abortion

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