Four physiological processes involved in nociceptive

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FOUR PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESSES INVOLVED IN NOCICEPTIVE PAIN 1. TRANSDUCTION NOCIECEPTORS - PERIPHERAL RECEPTORS ACTIVATED FROM NOXIOUS STIMULI→ CONVERTS PAINFUL STIMULI TO ELECTRICAL IMPULSES THAT TRAVEL TO SPINE & BRAIN TISSUE DAMAGE→ RELEASE OF SUBSTANCES THAT ACTIVATE THE NERVE ENDING (PROSTAGLANDINS, BRADYKININ, SEROTONIN, HISTAMINE & SUBSTANCE P)→ PAIN STIMULATED NSAIDS WORK HERE BY BLOCKING PROSTAGLANDIN
2 . TRANSMISSION PAIN IMPULSE - TRAVELS FROM SITE OF INJURY ALONG PERIPHERAL NERVE FIBERS TO THE SPINAL CORD OPIOIDS - BIND TO OPIOID RECEPTOR SITES IN THE DORSAL HORN BLOCK SUBSTANCE P & PRODUCES ANALGESIA TWO TYPES OF NOCICEPTOR FIBERS CAUSE TRANSMISSION OF PAIN TO SPINAL CORD AND BRAIN: FAST CONDUCTING A-FIBERS LARGE DELTA FIBERS (TRANSMIT ACUTE, SHARP, LOCALIZED PAIN) SLOW CONDUCTING C-FIBERS UNMYELINATED C FIBERS (TRANSMIT DULL, ACHING , BURNING PAIN)
3. PERCEPTION : INTERPRETATION OF PAIN SUM OF COMPLEX ACTIVITIES IN THE CEREBRAL CORTEX PAIN THRESHOLD – LOWEST INTENSITY OF A STIMULUS THAT CAUSES RECOGNITION OF PAIN ADAPTATION TO THE INTENSITY OF PAIN CAN OCCUR TO LESSEN THE PAIN USE OF MIND-BODY THERAPIES AS DISTRACTION OR IMAGERY
4.MODULATION CHANGES PERCEPTION OF PAIN BY EITHER FACILITATING OR INHIBITING PAIN SIGNALS NEUROMODULATORS ENDOGENOUS OPIOID COMPOUNDS IN SPINAL CORD & BRAIN & PROVIDE PAIN RELIEF BIND TO OPIOID RECEPTORS IN CNS & BLOCK PRODUCTION OF PAIN-SUBSTANCES ENDORPHINS- PAIN BLOCKING CHEMICALS RELEASED BY SKIN STIMULATION, RELAXATION TECHNIQUES ENKEPHALINS – LESS POTENT THAN ENDORPHINS BLOCK RELEASE OF SUBSTANCE P
GATE CONTROL THEORY SMALL-DIAMETER (C) PERIPHERAL NERVE FIBERS CARRY SIGNALS OF NOXIOUS STIMULI TO THE DORSAL HORN & ON TO THE THALMUS PERIPHERAL/LARGE- DIAMETER (A-DELTA) NERVE FIBERS (STIMULATED BY SKIN FIBERS-RUBBING) HAVE INHIBITORY EFFECT ON SLOWER C-FIBERS
GATE CONTROL THEORY (CONT.) GATING MECHANISM LOCATED IN DORSAL HORN OF SPINAL CORD EXCITING & INHIBITORY SIGNALS HERE AT THE GATE DETERMINE WHICH ONES REACH THE BRAIN NURSING MEASURES – MASSAGE OR WARM COMPRESS ELECTRICAL IMPULSES AS TENS UNIT
GATE CONTROL THEORY (CONT.) STIMULATE THE LARGE NERVE FIBERS (A-DELTA) TO CARRY NON-PAIN IMPULSES BLOCKS PAIN IMPULSES FROM THAT AREA ON THE SMALL DIAMETER FIBERS (C-FIBERS) FROM GOING TO THE BRAIN CLOSES THE GATE!
CLINICAL APPLICATION NURSES CAN USE GATE THEORY TO STOP NOCICEPTOR FIRING STIMULATE LARGE NERVE FIBERS TO CLOSE THE GATE APPLY TOPICAL THERAPIES (HEAT, ICE, ELECTRICAL STIMULATION, OR MASSAGE) THESE INTERVENTIONS STIMULATE NERVE FIBERS IN THE SPINAL CORD THAT SERVE TO BLOCK THE PAIN IMPULSE ON THE C (SMALL) FIBERS
WHICH ONE OF THE FOLLOWING NURSING INTERVENTIONS FOR A CLIENT IN PAIN IS BASED ON THE GATE-CONTROL THEORY?

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