The primary sources examined since the beginning of the semester include: The primary sources examined since the midterm include: Edwin Landau and Martha Appel memoir excerpts, Nuremburg Laws, Schnellbrief (Urgent Memo), Warsaw Diary of Chaim Kaplan , Abba Kovner’s Testimony on Wittenberg, Kovner’s call to arms, “Facing Death in the Bialystok Ghetto,” Anna Heilman and Rose Meth memoir excerpts, Szmul Wasersztajn testimony. Section II. One Essay. 40 points. This question will ask you to address, reflect on, and bring together some of the key themes addressed in lecture, discussion section, and assigned readings since the midterm. The themes include the evolution of Nazi policy towards the Jews, Jewish responses to Nazi persecution, Nazi policy towards a variety of targeted groups, different scholarly understandings of perpetrator behavior, non-Germans who helped perpetrate crimes against the Jews, Allied responses to the Holocaust, rescue efforts, and postwar justice. Each essay should identify and address broad themes while simultaneously discussing supporting material and evidence with as much specificity as possible. You will have a choice of two questions, from which you will be required to write on one.
Section III. Short Identifications. 4 points each, for a total for 20 points. In a few sentences, identify the terms (think at a minimum, who, what, when, where, and why) and explain their significance. Seven of the terms below will appear on the exam, and you will be required to write on five . Crimes against humanity Einsatzgruppen Adolf Eichmann The banality of evil Jedwabne Commissar Order Sinti and Roma Operation T-4 Heinrich Himmler Reinhard Heydrich Judenrat Nuremburg Trials Wannsee Conference Abba Kovner Kristallnacht
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