1 Isobutylene Methacrolein H 2 O desired O 2 CO 2 H 2 O undesired Figure 21

1 isobutylene methacrolein h 2 o desired o 2 co 2 h 2

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1. Isobutylene Methacrolein + H 2 O (desired) O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O (undesired) Figure 2.1: Overall mole balance for the production Process
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2.1. Economic Potential The reactions just only need one condition and can be conducted without any catalyst. At this level, based on the stoichiometry of Eq. 1.1, for 428571.4286 kmol/yr methacrolein, at least about 428571.4286 kmol/yr of isobutylene and 428571.4286 kmol/yr of oxygen makeup are required for as the raw material. According to the literature, the production of side product, carbon dioxide can be neglected for a rough calculation at this level as compared to other species. The prices of products and raw materials based on their available purities in the global market are listed in Table 2.1. Species Purity Price Isobutylene 99% $40/MT Methacrolein 99% $188/MT Table 2.1: Prices of chemical species 1 Isobutylene + 1 O2  1 Methacrolein + 1 H2O 1 Metric Ton ( MT )= 1000 kg Molecular Weight ( Isobutylene ) = 56 kg kmol Molecular Weight ( Methacrolein )= 70 kg kmol Production ( Methacrolein ) = 30,000 MT yr × 1000 kg 1 MT × kmol 70 kg = 428571.4286 kmol yr According to stoichiometry,1 mol of methacrolein requires 1 mol of isobutylene feed. Feed: Isobutylene = 428571.4286 kmol yr × 56 kg kmol × 1 MT 1000 kg = 24000 MT yr Therefore the potential of economics (EP1) at the first level would be as follows:
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Process 1 . Isobutylene 2 Oxygen 3 Methacrolein (desired) 4 Carbon Dioxide, Oxygen, Water Process FA FB PM PD (a) (b) Economic Potential ( EP 1 )= Revenue – Raw MaterialCosts 30,000 MT Methacrolein yr × $ 188 MT 24000 MT Isobutylene yr × $ 40 MT = $ 4680000 / yr From the result of the economic potential analysis above, it clearly implies that the 30,000 metric tonnes per annum production of benzene is feasible (EP1>0) at the continuous mode of operation. We assumed that there is 100 per cent yield, conversion and separator efficiency upon this level. Side reaction is not taken into consideration. 3. Level 2 Decision : Input- Output Structure of The Process Output Since the raw materials costs normally falls in the range from 33 to 85% of the total processing cost, these costs are essential to be estimated before any other detail is added to the design. As a rule of thumb in process design, it is desirable to recover more than 99% of all valuable materials. Thus at the second level of decision, the mole balances are calculated for the overall system in which the limiting reactant is 100% converted (various conversions are evaluated inside the process and would appear in the third level of decision). Figure 3.1 depicts the input-output structure of the process Figure 3.1: Input-Output Stream and the Respective Nomenclatures of the Isobutylene Oxidation
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3.1 Mole Balances in Term of Extent of Reaction Analysis of mole balance follows the extent of reaction method. The symbols
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