Project Monitoring and Control Phase – occurring at the same time as the execution phase, this one mostly deals with measuring the project performance and progression in accordance to the project plan. Scope verification and control occur to check and monitor for scope creep, change control to track and manage changes to project requirement. Calculating key performance indicators for cost and time are done to measure the degree of variation, if any, and in which case corrective measures are determined and suggested to keep a project on track. To prevent project failure, consider why projects are likely to fail and the ways to prevent failure. Project Closure Phase – A project is formally closed. It includes a series of important tasks such as delivering the product, relieving resources, reward and recognition to the team members and formal termination of contractors in case they were employed on the project.
PROJ ECT PHASES AND THEP ROJ ECT LIFE CYCLE Because projects are unique undertakings, they involve a degree of uncertainty. Organizations performing projects will usually divide each project into several project phases to provide better management control and appropriate links to the ongoing operations of the performing organization. Collectively, the project phases are known as the project life cycle . 2.1.1 Characteristics of Project Phases Each project phase is marked by completion of one or more deliverables . A deliverable is a tangible, verifiable work product such as a feasibility study, a detail design, or a working prototype. The deliverables, and hence the phases, are part of a generally sequential logic designed to ensure proper definition of the product of the project. The conclusion of a project phase is generally marked by a review of both key deliverables and project performance in order to (a) determine if the project should continue into its next phase and (b) detect and correct errors cost effectively. These phase-end reviews are often called phase exits , stage gates, or kill points . Each project phase normally includes a set of defined work products designed to establish the desired level of management control. The majority of these items are related to the primary phase deliverable, and the phases typically take their names from these items: requirements, design, build, text, start-up, turnover, and others as appropriate. Several representative project life cycles are described in Section 2.1.3. 2.1.2 Characteristics of the Project Life Cycle The project life cycle serves to define the beginning and the end of a project. For example, when an organization identifies an opportunity that it would like to respond to, it will often authorize a feasibility study to decide if it should undertake a project. The project life cycle definition can be used to link the project to the ongoing operations of the performing organization.
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