Sequence in land occupation = forced then slash and burn agriculture then leads to animal
domestication and use which then leads to cattle farms.
There is international demand for deforestation and meat in Latin American economies
such as in Costa Rica.
Foreign demand drives the transformation of local societies.
There is much collusion between MNC’s and governments.
Squatter laws = laws to protect people that move into forest areas. Under the assumption
that cutting down trees is a type of developing the land.
The large landowner has an easy time in manipulating peasant protection. This leads to
rapid soil erosion, reduction in fertility and increased demand for more land.
Banana production is big in Costa Rica and it is powered by international demand. From
original production to final sale, the MNC the United Fruit Company (Chiquita) controls
the sale of bananas.
Bananas are labour intensive so you get phenomenal demographic effects. However, they
have little environmental impact.
Rural push factors vs. urban pull factors
Free trade zone driven by external demand
Expanding administrative apparatus
Urban bias: cities feed on rural poverty
Comparison of national and multinational firms in Panama
Grupo CALESA is a local, well established national company in Panama. They have a
number of different enterprises (sugar, cattle, food stuffs, grains, shrimp, etc). They are
Camaco (shrimp production)
Needs large, flat land near the sea shore.
The environmental impact of shrimp farming is colossal, because you cut down
the mangroves where most of the little fish live. You therefore cut out the
reproduction of most of the fish habitat.
Buys milk form local farmers, and impose their norms (organized, clean, etc.).
Groupo Calesa (National Company)
Capital = national