The South African government, which, on May 31, 1961, pro- claimed a republic with a new racially restrictive constitution, proceeded to crack down on political dissidents. Various ANC and PAC leaders had abandoned nonviolent approaches for those involving the selective employment of force. Many within the organizations had opposed this change in strategy, which occurred as Chief Albert Luthuli received the 1961 Nobel Peace Prize. Nevertheless, ANC and PAC members, who included whites and nonwhites in their ranks, established Umkhonto Wesizwe, an armed faction, to serve as a military wing of the resistance movement. By late 1961, Umkhonto Wesizwe resorted to acts of sabotage, targeting key economic and political instal- lations. Shortly thereafter, two other underground groups appeared: Poqo, affiliated with the PAC, and the National Liberation Committee, connected to the ANC. Operating on a series of different levels, the ANC sent Nelson Mandela on travels throughout Africa, where he sought support from the new, independent African states. Indeed, British authorities had steadily turned over the reins of power to nationalist parties in Africa, which joined to form the Organization of African Unity (OAU). The OAU failed to include South Africa, and called for all nations to sever diplo- matic relations with the apartheid state. The United Nations, on November 6, 1962, passed a resolution imposing sanctions on South Africa. This move, which delighted Mandela, suggested an attempt by the international federation to employ economic arbitrary borders to help bring an end to South Africa’s system of apartheid. All the while, the South African government, having suffered an assassination attempt against Prime Minister Verwoerd, moved to crush the resistance movements, effectively doing so by mid-1963. The police and prosecutors targeted key figures, eventually garnering life sentences for individuals like Mandela and Walter Sisulu, both of whom were sent off to Robben Island, which held political prisoners of the apartheid regime. The government also achieved greater stability as the economy 97 A System in Crisis
improved, thereby augmenting the appeal of the National Party. Still, for many supporters of the government, which sought to attract European immigrants, it needed to resolve the racial conundrum that afflicted South Africa. One approach involved restricting the number of Africans who dwelled in urban cen- ters, a move opposed by both employers’ organizations and trade unions. Like the Strijdom government, Verwoerd’s envisioned greater economic diversity that would permit “the Reserves to house the ‘surplus’ black population of the white urban areas and the white farms.” 83 Thus, Verwoerd, who had agreed to lim- ited self-government for blacks in the Transkei, attempted to begin to implement the Tomlinson Report (see chapter 8) but discovered by 1964 that greater public involvement was required. Consequently, the government offered more tax incentives, helped construct factories, and provided exemptions from labor standards. Still, too few jobs proved forthcoming as
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