British coming w advanced military technology

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British coming w advanced military technology compared to ChinaTreaty of Nanjing 1842Marked the end of the first Opium warFirst of what the chinese called unequal treaties bc the British had no obligations in returnAdvancement of British technology/industrialization over ChinaTerms of treaty Britain was granted extraterritorial rights---Hong Kong in 1897China paid 6 million dollars for the opium destroyed, 3 million for the debts of china, 12 million for the British costs of the expedition (including the sending of British soldiers)wanted to maintain the existing system where British was the most powerful cartel; control tradedid not want to legalize opiumMost-favored nation statusIf you grant a trade agreement to one country, it must also be granted to all other “most favored nations”exponential loss of sovereigntyBritain, France, Denmark, Germany, Spain, US, JapanSparked nationalistic sentimentsExtraterritorialityBritish citizen were still under British law in ChinaWhen commiting a crime, Chinese jurisdiction is useless
War IndemnityBritish forced China to repay for the opium lost and for their war expensesChina’s Attempts at ReformTreaty of Wanghai 1844 (with U.S.)Gave territorial rights to US----fixed low tariffs and most favored nation statusin exchange for US recognizing opium trade as illegalAlso gave them exterritorialityTreaties of Tientsin (Tianjin) 1858The favored nation status was extended to all foreign nations in China and openedup more ports to allow Christians to come inSino-Japanese War 1894-95Worst humiliating loss for the Qing dynastyChina tried to defend Korea from being colonized by Japan but got defeatedResult wss that taiwan and korea became colonies of JapanLoss to both Europeans and JapanTreaty of Shimonoseki 1895China had to recognize Korea as a Japanese colonyCeded Taiwan to Japan as a colony and kept it until WW2China forced to pay huge reparations to JapanJapan learned from Treaty of NanjingTaiping RebellionLed by Hong XiuquanWanted to drive out Manchus (Qing Dynasty) and established heavenly kingdom---Christian utopiaWanted to create a peaceful kingdom w an egalitarian ethos w equality for the sexes (stop foot binding and concubinage)free education for allAbolition of private property and farm land redistributionEqual access to resources---food clothing landHong XiuquanBelieved himself to be “God’s Chinese son” younger brother of Jesus and led the Taiping rebellionFailed the civil service exam four timesArmy structured like military and sergeants were in charge of families and in charge of leading religious services and collecting tariffs.Taiping gender agendaFree education for all and equality bw men and women such as abolition of foot binding and concubinage
Land reformsEveryone gets an equal share of land based on how many people you have in yourfamiliesChildren 16 under got under half the size of land that adults would get---”Mao”Abolition of private property

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