19 what does it mean when a population is in hardy

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19. What does it mean when a population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium? What factors must occur in order for a population to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium? 20. Based upon the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, how can you tell if a population is evolving? What factors may lead to an evolving population? 21. What is the biological species concept? 22. What must happen in order for speciation to occur? 23. Describe the two major types of speciation and give an example of each. 24. Briefly describe the five prezygotic barriers and the three postzygotic barriers to reproduction that lead to reproductive isolation between populations. 25. Why do species go extinct? What causes mass extinctions? 26. Mass extinctions lead to opportunities for surviving species. Explain and use an example. 27. What is adaptive radiation? Explain why it occurs. Give an example. 28. Describe the difference between gradualism and punctuated equilibrium. What factors do you think affect the rate of speciation? 29. Describe the three different domains of life? Does all of life share a common ancestor? Explain your evidence. 30. What are derived characters and how are they used to develop a cladogram? Give an example. Can a derived character be lost due to evolution? Give an example. 31. What is the difference between a monophyletic, paraphyletic, and polyphyletic clade? The goal of an evolutionary biologist is to build which of the three clades? Explain. Why may a researcher make changes to a cladogram? Past Free-Response Questions: 1981: Define, discuss, and give an example of how each of the following isolating mechanisms contributes to speciation in organisms. a. Geographical barriers b. Ecological (including seasonal) isolation c. Behavioral isolation d. Polyploidy 1982: Describe the special relationship between the two terms in each of the following pairs. a. Convergent evolution of organisms and Australia b. Blood groups and genetic drift c. Birds of prey and DDT
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AP BIOLOGY 3 1984: Describe the modern theory of evolution and discuss how it is supported by evidence from two of the following three areas: a) Population genetics b) Molecular biology c) Comparative anatomy and embryology 1986: Describe the process of speciation. Include in your discussion the factors that may contribute to the maintenance of genetic isolation. 1989: Do the following with reference to the Hardy-Weinberg model. a) Indicate the conditions under which allele frequencies (p and Q) remain constant from one generation to the next. b) Calculate, showing all work, the frequencies of the alleles and frequencies of the genotypes in a population of 100,000 rabbits of which 25,000 are white and 75,000 are agouti. (In rabbits the white color is due to a recessive allele, w, and agouti is due to a dominant allele, W.) c) If the homozygous dominant condition were to become lethal, what would happen to the allelic and genotypic frequencies in the rabbit population after two generations?
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