often softened and pronounced “uh” (about, machine, pencil, tunnel, zebra, selection) o This vowel sound is called the schwa , represented by ǝ o Blending into Words readers blend or combine sounds to decode words o Phonograms (Rimes) One-syllable words and syllables in longer words can be divided into two parts Onset o The consonant SOUND, if any, that precedes the vowel Rime o The vowel and any consonant sounds that follow it o 37 rimes found in 500 common words Decoding by Analogy Identify a rime and blend it with new onset to decode unknown word 6
Chapter 4 EL 316 o Phonics Rules Q is followed by u and pronounced /kw/ R influences the preceding vowels so that they’re neither long or short Many rules aren’t very useful because there are more exceptions than conforming words Teaching Phonics o Best way to teach phonics is through a combination of explicit instruction and authentic application activities o Teach strategies to identify unknown words Sound it out Decode by analogy Apply phonics rules 7
Chapter 4 EL 316 8
Chapter 4 EL 316 9
Chapter 4 EL 316 Phonological Awareness vs. Phonemic Awareness o Phonological awareness a broad skill that includes identifying and manipulating units of oral language – parts such as words, syllables, and onsets and rimes. Children who have phonological awareness are able to identify and make oral rhymes, can clap out the number of syllables in a word, and can recognize words with the same initial sounds like 'money' and 'mother.' o Phonemic awareness the specific ability to focus on and manipulate individual sounds (phonemes) in spoken words. Phonemes are the smallest units comprising spoken language. Phonemes combine to form syllables and words. For example, the word 'mat' has three phonemes: /m/ /a/ /t/. There are 44 phonemes in the English language, including sounds represented by letter combinations such as /th/. Acquiring phonemic awareness is important because it is the foundation for spelling and word recognition skills. Phonemic awareness is one of the best predictors of how well children will learn to read during the first two years of school instruction. Students need solid phonemic awareness training for phonics instruction to be effective. Approximately 20-40% of children have difficulty with PA. Focusing on one or two skills is more effective than multiple skills e.g. segmenting and blending 10
Chapter 4 EL 316 Characteristics of Phonological Units to be Considered o Position in word – initial and final easier than medial. o Number of phonemes in a word – cat is easier than sand. o Size – compound words are larger than phonemes. 11
Chapter 4 EL 316 o Phonological properties – continuants, such as /m/, are easier than stop sounds, such as /t/.
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- Spring '14