DSST Anthropology as a Discipline

In contrast mesopotamia was invaded regularly having

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In contrast, Mesopotamia was invaded regularly, having no natural barriers; the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers were difficult to navigate and control and flooded regularly. The first use of writing may have been to record the arrangements for river control. The Mesopotamian civilizations are described as more pessimistic than the Egyptians which were more secure geographically. Nature of Culture A symbol is a communication element intended to simply represent or stand for a complex of person, object, group, or idea. Symbols may be presented graphically, as in the cross for Christianity, the red cross or crescent for the life- preserving agencies of Christian and Islamic countries; representationally, as in the human figures Marianne, John Bull, and Uncle Sam standing for France, England, and the United States respectively; they may involve letters, as in K for the chemical element potassium; or they may be assigned arbitrarily, as in the mathematical symbol for infinity or the symbol $ for dollar. Culture is a system of symbols , acting to mediate between the individual and his/her world. Culture provides us with an interpretive sieve for making sense of the world, motivating our actions and behavior (this operates at unconscious and conscious levels of awareness). Whatever the experience of reality that lies behind the religious symbol may be, it is above all the experience of the sacred or holy, which belongs essentially to any concept of religion. The historical study of religions has shown that it is fundamentally the symbol that mediates and forms for man's religious consciousness the reality and the claim of the holy. Language is a system of conventional spoken or written symbols by means of which human beings, as members of a social group and participants in its culture, communicate . So are cryptic ciphers and algebra. The aim of phonology is to determine the principles that govern sound structure in human language. It deals with the abstract representation of sound, rather than the properties of the physical speech signal (Phonetics). Phonological theory is concerned with questions like: 'Why does no language ban words that start with a consonant, but some languages ban words that end in a consonant?' 'Why does every language have a [t] or a glottal stop (or both)?'
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Morphology is concerned with the principles that regulate word structure in language, and how that structure relates to other components (e.g. syntax, phonology). Morphology is concerned with questions such as: 'Which principles determine the syntactic category of words?' 'Can phonological restrictions change the order of morphemes?' An essential similarity between society and culture involves the core concept of status . With regards to culture, it is the position from which members engage in social practices.
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