DSST Anthropology as a Discipline

The kings of ancient egypt were known as pharaohs the

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The kings of ancient Egypt were known as pharaohs. The authority of a pharaoh is referred to as Pharaonic Authority. The Hittites were responsible for the smelting of iron. The Assyrians established an empire which by 665 B.C. included Palestine, Syria, and much of Asia Minor down to the Persian Gulf in the southeast.
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In addition to maintaining and ruthlessly exploiting their empire, the Assyrians served as a buffer to the civilized Middle East against the barbarians on the frontiers. The Assyrian empire finally fell because of internal revolution and a defeat in 612 B.C.E. by the Neo- Babylonians (Chaldeans). While these empires rose and fell, the most important intellectual development was that of the Hebrew religion. The Israelites (or Hebrews) were a people, like the Phoenicians, who flourished in the political vacuum left by the weakening of the Egyptian empire and the annihilation of the Hittites around 1200 B.C. The Israelites were responsible for a religious revolution founded on the concept of a single, universal God who had a covenant with his chosen people. God was a just judge who required obedience to his laws. The early Greeks (Thales, Xenophanes, Pythagoras and Hippocrates) tried to understand the world without reference to supernatural powers, but rather with emphasis on logic and observation. In this, and in other ways, the Greeks differed radically from Near Eastern thought. As more people began living in the same area, various forms of government developed. Ranging from strong centralized monarchy (Hittites, Assyrians, Babylonians, Israelites, etc.), to the less centralized monarchies of the city-states in Sumeria, to the theocracy of Egypt. Egypt was protected by deserts and the sea and nourished by the Nile which flooded regularly; it was less prone to invasion and hence more secure politically. In contrast, Mesopotamia was invaded regularly, having no natural barriers; the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers were difficult to navigate and control and flooded regularly. The first use of writing may have been to record the arrangements for river control. The Mesopotamian civilizations are described as more pessimistic than the Egyptians which were more secure geographically. Nature of Culture A symbol is a communication element intended to simply represent or stand for a complex of person, object, group, or idea. Symbols may be presented graphically, as in the cross for Christianity, the red cross or crescent for the life- preserving agencies of Christian and Islamic countries; representationally, as in the human figures Marianne, John Bull, and Uncle Sam standing for France, England, and the United States respectively; they may involve letters, as in K for the chemical element potassium; or they may be assigned arbitrarily, as in the mathematical symbol for infinity or the symbol $ for dollar. Culture
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The kings of ancient Egypt were known as pharaohs The...

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