When a mutation occurs in 1% of the population, it is called a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) ■ SNPs are the most common type of genetic ■ Occurs in the non-coding region of the gene ■ This also can occur in coding region of the gene PCR Review ★ Primers tells you where to start and where to end ○ We are also adding in 4 deoxynucleotides (dCTP, dGTP, dTTP, dATP) we are adding them so we can make more DNA (basically making another strain) ○ We are adding in a DNA polymerase called Taq polymerase ■ Hae III restriction digest will cut between GGCC (only cuts if GGCC is in it) ● Step 1 of PCR ○ The mixture is heated to 94 F and this will break the hydrogen bonds and the two DNA strands denature ● Step 2 of PCR ○ Cooled to 45-65. Two primers bind to target complements (aka Annealing) ● Step 3 of PCR ○ Taq binds to each separated DNA strands and primer combo Quiz Review Slides 1-9 How do you tell if its DNA? DNA RNA
Sugar Deoxyribose Ribose Bases Thymine Uracil How are the nitrogen bases represented? They are shown by the N (Nitrogen) Why is DNA negative charge? DNA is negative charge because of the phosphate is negative and that is on the outside. Why does DNA have a double ring with a single ring? The hydrogen bonds will not reach across and that will cause the DNA to not form and it would not be following Chargaff's rule (1:1). The double ring and the single ring switching sides is what makes your “DNA code”. Which one is double ring and single ring? A & G are double rings and T & C are signal rings. Which ones have double bonds and which have triple? A & T have a double hydrogen bond and C & G have a triple hydrogen bonds. What is gene? A piece of DNA that codes for protein.