Cardiac catheterization angiogram Echocardiography Laboratory levels Blood

Cardiac catheterization angiogram echocardiography

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Cardiac catheterization -> angiogram Echocardiography Laboratory levels: Blood lipids Cardiac enzymes Electrocardiogram
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Treatment of Angina Pectoris Mostly based on symptoms Try to eliminate what causes the attack Nitroglycerin , nitrates, calcium antagonists, and beta blockers Nitro teaching, including storage! Pt teaching pg 457 Cholesterol-lowering drugs Antiplatelet aggregation drugs Low dose aspirin or plavix Nursing consideration Patient teaching: guidelines for pts with angina pg 457
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Acute Myocardial Infarction Affects 620,000 Americans ANUALLY Males 2-1 vs females in occurrence Females die more frequently (379,000 from heart disease annually) especially after menopause Stress, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome have a bigger impact on women than men Causes: Thrombosis due to ruptured atherosclerotic plaque Embolus Sustained arterial spasm No matter the cause, blood flow to heart stops That portion of the heart will no longer contract Dead tissue does not return to normal
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Signs and Symptoms of Myocardial Infarction see angina Sudden, severe pain in the chest Remember can be tightness, pressure, or squeezing Dyspnea Nausea with or without vomiting Wheezing Ashen, clammy, cool skin Pallor Diaphoresis Anxiety Women – extreme fatigue, indigestion, weakness
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Diagnosis of Myocardial Infarction Electrocardiogram (ECG) White cell count – necrotic tissue causes increase Troponin levels – most definitive Specific to cardiac muscle Elevate in 4-6 hours, return to normal in 10 days CPK Elevates in 4-6 hours, returns in 3-4 days CK-MB Only found in the heart muscle Elevates in 2-6 hours, returns in 3 days
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Diagnosis of Myocardial Infarction Cardiac catheterization with angiography Pts will receive a dye that is very hard on kidneys Promote fluid intake if not contraindicated Can access through femoral or radial artery Femoral May require bed rest for up to 6 hours without moving leg If closure device used, only requires 2-4 hours Radial Just need to keep wrist immobile No matter what method is used, circulation distal to the site is EXTREMELY important Also check site for hemorrhage/hematoma
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  • Fall '19
  • Atherosclerosis, acute myocardial infarction, infarction, Dyspnea

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