preferred over public, corporal punishment -Reza builds prisons and puts up statues of himself and renames things after himself. He tears down old buildings. -Other urban developments like playgrounds, cinemas, etc. -All these reforms bring mixed opinion -Some see Westernization, introduction of modern amenities, development, law -Some see corruption, lack of authenticity, police state -Much of opposition comes from young intelligentsia and young professionals who studied in Europe and were influenced from the left The Coup by Abrahamiam
-1953 coup by the US which takes out Mossadeq and reinstalls the Shah -1951-53 oil crisis between Iran and Britain -1951 Mossadeq elected premier with clear goal of nationalizing British owned Anglo-Iranian Oil Company -US wants to be honest broker lmao -Many try to fit this conflict in a cold war context...show that the US was really concerned about Iran falling behind Iron Curtain -Mossadeq’s refusal making country susceptible to communism...encourage Britain to accept and not invade until Truman comes to power -Oil is at stake...US is not neutral -This author sees it more as conflict between imperialism and nationalism, First and Third World, global north and south, developing/exporting raw materials versus developed -US and Britain not worried about communism but effects of oil nationalization -1901 D’Arcy Concession .... 50,000 and some shareholder money for all petroleum in the country and promise to return 16 percent of revenues -Oil struck in 1908 and he sells to Burmah Oil Company (eventually anglo-persian oil company APOC) -Company is mad sketchy, exploits Iran, sells to British army/ US at discount rate, bring in labor from India and Palestine to keep Iranians from moving up -Racism and segregation -Oil as a curse rather than a blessing -1929 strike...8 hour day, better wages and housing, union rights, equal pay and holidays -Martial law...lots of arrests and 500 fired -1946 it breaks out again -More demands including cry for nationalization -65,000 join in -Also ends in martial law and mass arrests but strike gets raised min wage and Friday pay -Iran is a pawn in the “Great Game” of imperialist ambitions from Russia and England -Policy of positive equilibrium...grant each side parallel trading privileges, economic concessions, political influence...starting in 1820 -Leads to distrust of both powers -1907 Anglo-Russian Agreement carves up Iran into zones of influence (British in southwest and Russians in north) -Iranians pissed...from outside view it appears Britain seen as enemy and Russia as potential friend -People are suspicious English have a hand in everything...Shah comes to power and scraps 1919 Anglo-Persian agreement and signs neutrality treaty with Soviets -1932 cancels D’Arcy Concession
-Shah often seen as British agent especially because British funded his coup and new deal is good for British -In return, Iranians get more people in company, gave back territory -Nationalizing comes about during time of deep distrust of British and Shah -Shah abdicates and Britain has even greater role in Iranian life
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- Spring '16
- stephen kinzer
- Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Reza Shah, Pahlavi dynasty