Entire intestinal wall Granuloma Rare Common cobblestone appearance Abdominal

Entire intestinal wall granuloma rare common

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Entire intestinal wall Granuloma Rare Common “cobblestone” appearance Abdominal pain Occasional Common Bloody stools Common Less common Steatorrhea Rare Common Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody Common Rare Antisaccharomyces cerevisiae antibody Rare Common
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Diverticula: herniation of mucosa Diverticulosis Diverticulitis: (pain, fever, leukocytosis ) Possible causes Age(over 60), diet, intracolonic pressure, neuromuscular function, motility issues Clinical manifestations low cramping, pain, diarrhea Treatment Hepatitis  Autoimmune Rare, chronic, and progressive T cell–mediated inflammatory liver disease Clinical manifestations No symptoms  Jaundice, fatigue, loss of appetite, and amenorrhea Treatment Immunosuppressive drug therapy (e.g., corticosteroids or in combination with azathioprine) with  remission within 24 months Relapses common with treatment withdrawal Viral Chronic active hepatitis  Occurs with hepatitis B and hepatitis C with a predisposition to cirrhosis and hepatocellular  carcinoma. Fulminant hepatitis Is a complication of hepatitis B (with or without hepatitis D infection) or hepatitis C. Causes widespread hepatic necrosis. Is often fatal. Hep A:  Sources: feces, bile, and sera of infected individuals. Transmission: Fecal-oral route Risk factors: contaminated food/water  Prevention: hand washing, vaccine Hep B:  Transmission: blood, body fluids, needles Vertical transmission: mother child Hepatitis B vaccine Hepatitis B immunoglobulin provides postexposure prophylaxis against hepatitis B. Hep C: Is responsible for most cases of posttransfusion hepatitis. IV drug use and HIV infection. Co-infection with hepatitis B. Chronic liver disease. No vaccine Antivirals Hepatitis D Dependent on hepatitis B for replication Treatment: Pegylated interferon alpha  Hepatitis E Fecal-oral transmission Contaminated water or uncooked meat Most common in Asian and African countries Common in developing countries Vaccine in China but not in other countries Cirrhosis: Irreversible inflammatory fibrotic disease; disrupts liver function and even liver structure. Common causes: Hepatic function from nodular and fibrotic tissue synthesis (fibrosis) decreases. Obstruction of biliary channels  Consequences of hypertension
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Alcoholic liver disease  Oxidation of alcohol, causing damage to hepatocytes Steatosis (alcoholic fatty liver) Alcoholic hepatitis (steatohepatitis)  Alcoholic cirrhosis (fibrosis) Toxic effects of alcohol metabolism on the liver, immunologic alterations, oxidative stress from lipid  peroxidation, and malnutrition occur
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