i Cultural rules are learned as norms G Psychological Science Now Crosses

I cultural rules are learned as norms g psychological

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i. Cultural rules are learned as norms G. Psychological Science Now Crosses Levels of Analysis a. Researchers can explain behavior at many levels of analysis. b. Four important levels i. Biological level of analysis ii. Individual level of analysis iii. Social level of analysis iv. Cultural level of analysis c. Example: Listening to music can be studied at all levels. H. Using Psychology in Your Life: Will Psychology Benefit Me in My Career? a. Neuroscientists/biological psychologists b. Cognitive psychologists c. Developmental psychologists d. Personality psychologists e. Social psychologists f. Cultural psychologists Chapter 2 I. How Is the Scientific Method Used in Psychological Research? A. Science Has Four Primary Goals o There are four primary goals of science Description Prediction Control Explanation B. Critical Thinking Means Questioning and Evaluating Information o Characteristics of critical thinkers Question claims
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Seek definitions for the parts of the claims Evaluate the claims by looking for well-supported evidence D. The Scientific Method Aids Critical Thinking a. The Scientific Method i. Research : The systematic and careful collection of data ii. Scientific Method : a systematic and dynamic procedure of observing and measuring phenomena, which is used to achieve the goals of description, prediction, control, and explanation and involves an interaction among research, theories, and hypotheses. iii. Theory : A model of interconnected ideas or concepts that explains what is observed, makes predictions about future events, and is based on empirical evidence. iv. Hypothesis : a specific, testable prediction, narrower than the theory it is based on. b. Good Theories i. How do we decide whether a theory is good? 1. When we talk about a good theory, we do not mean that it is good because it is supported by research findings. 2. One key feature of a good theory is that it should be falsifiable. 3. A good theory produces a wide variety of testable hypotheses. 4. Good theories also tend toward simplicity. ii. A good theory produces a wide variety of testable hypotheses. 1. Jean Piaget’s theory of infant and child development generated thousands of hypotheses and scientific papers. 2. Freud’s theory that dreams serve a function of wish fulfillment generated few testable hypotheses. c. Hypotheses Need to be Tested i. The six steps of the scientific method 1. Forming a hypothesis 2. Conduct a literature review 3. Design a study 4. Conduct the study 5. Analyze the data 6. Report the Results
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E. Unexpected Findings Can Be Valuable a. Many significant scientific findings are the result of serendipity. i. Serendipity means unexpectedly finding things that are valuable or agreeable. ii. Late 1950s: Physiologists Wiesel and Hubel hypothesized that certain brain cells in cats would respond when the cats looked at dots on slides.
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  • Spring '08
  • Leslie
  • Psychology, i., researcher

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