Infiltrate lymph nodes spleen liver brain and other

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Infiltrate lymph nodes, spleen, liver, brain, and other organs Acute Leukemias (ALL & AML) High proportion of immature, nonfunctional cells in bone marrow and peripheral circulation Onset usually abrupt and marked signs of complications Occurs primarily in children and younger adults Chronic Leukemias (CLL & CML) Higher proportion of mature cells Insidious onset Mild signs and better prognosis- common in older people Signs and symptoms: Usual signs at onset Frequent or uncontrollable infections Petechiae and purpura and signs of anemia Sever and steady bone pain Weight loss and fatigue, possible fever Enlarged lymph nodes, spleen, and liver Headache, visual disturbances, drowsiness, and vomiting Diagnostic Test: Immature leukocytes & altered WBC number Numbers of RBC & platelets decrease Bone marrow biopsy for confirmation Treatment: Chemotherapy ALL in young children responds well to drugs with 10 year plus remissions Biologic therapy (interferon)- used to stimulate immune system Complications: Opportunistic infections (pneumonia) Sepsis, congestive heart failure Hemorrhage, liver failure Renal failure, CNS depression, and coma Lymphomas Malignant neoplasm’s involving lymphocyte proliferation in lymph nodes Specific causes not identified: higher risk in adults who received radiation during childhood Two main disorders: Hodgkin Lymphoma
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Non-Hodgkin lymphoma- distinguished by multiple node involvement and non-organized with widespread metastases Hodgkin Lymphoma Initially involves a single painful lymph node Presence of Reed-Sternberg cell is how we diagnosis this- it’s a giant cell present in lymph node Symptoms First indictor- painless enlarged lymph node Later- Splenomegaly and enlarged lymph nodes General signs of cancer: weight loss, anemia, low-grade fever, night sweats, fatigue may develop Treatment Radiation, chemotherapy, or surgery Staging and prognosis dependent on: number of nodes involved, and the location of the nodes involved Multiple Myeloma Neoplastic disease that involves increased production of plasma cells in bone marrow Unknown etiology Occurs in older adults Production of other blood cells are impaired Multiple tumors in the bone causes loss of bone, and severe bone pain Prognosis poor with short-life expectancy *Bence-Johns on diagnostic test Chapter 18: Cardiac Disorders Diagnostic Test for Cardiac Function ECG : useful in the initial diagnosis and monitoring of dysrhythmias, myocardial infarction, pericarditis (when sac-like tissue covering the heart becomes inflamed) Echocardiography: To record the heart valve movement, blood flow, and cardiac output Exercise Stress Test: To assess general cardiovascular function Chest X-Ray Film: show shape and size of the heart using nuclear imaging, and tomographic studies Arterial Blood Gas Determination: Check the current oxygen level and acid-base balance
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