100%(2)2 out of 2 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 53 - 55 out of 65 pages.
2.Separation anxiety: One form of fear is separation anxiety: once attached to a parent, a baby often becomes wary or fretful when separated from that parent. Separation anxiety normally appears when infants are forming their first genuine attachments, peaks between 14 and 18 months, and gradually becomes less frequent and less intense3.Stranger anxiety: A second fearful response that often emerges shortly after an infant becomes attached to someone is stranger anxiety: a wary or fretful reaction to the approach of an unfamiliar person). Anxious reactions to strangers often mixed with signs of interest become common between 8 and 10 months, continue through the first year, and gradually decline in intensity over the second year.4.‘Secure base’ for exploration: The formation of a strong attachment to a caregiver has another important consequence: It facilitates exploratory behavior. Ainsworth and her colleagues (1978) emphasized that an attachment figure serves as a secure base for exploration—a point of safety from which an infant can feel free to venture—as well as a safe haven to which she can return if frightened for some "emotional refueling"1.According to Bowlby, what purpose does the baby’s crying, clinging, cooing and smiling serve (p. 314)?He argues that the newborn is biologically equipped to elicit attachmentbehavior. The baby cries, clings, coos, and smiles. Later, the infant crawls, walks, and follows the mother. The immediate result is to keep the primary caregiver nearby; the long-term effect is to increase the infant's chances of survival. 2.What are the 3 parenting behaviors (listed at the beginning of the lecture -see lectureoutline on Canvas) that contribute to a secure attachment? oThe securely attached infant 567.1. Stays close and continuously monitors [the caregiver's] whereabouts (proximity maintenance) 568.2. Retreats to her for comfort if needed (safe haven), resists and is distressedby separations from her (separation distress),569.3. Explores happily as long as she is present and attentive (secure base)1.How is attachment assessed? Strange Situation Test 2.What is the Strange Situation Test& who invented it (p.315)? oMary AinsworthoIt consists of eight episodes that gradually escalate the amount of stress infants experience as they react to the approach of an adult stranger and the departure
and return of their caregiver. On the basis of an infant's pattern of behavior across the episodes, the quality of his attachment to a parent can be characterized as one of four types: secure, resistant, avoidant, or disorganized-disoriented.3.Describe infant behavior for secure and the several insecure attachments when in the Strange Situation Test. oSecure attachment: Healthy balance of attachment and autonomy.o-------------------- (Insecure attachments below)oResistant attachment: Preoccupied; Clingy, worried about abandonment, express anxiety and anger.