When asked why they chose a certain one even if they didnt remember choosing

When asked why they chose a certain one even if they

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experiment done with the photos of two women. When asked why they chose a certain one (even if they didn’t remember choosing that woman) participants confabulate based on features in the photo they did not choose. This example is based on Choice Blindness. Choice Blindness: After making a choice, you may not notice that the outcome of the choice has been changed. Ex: photo study, study with political questionnaires. Festinger Study: Participants did a boring task and were asked to lie to someone and say that it was interesting. Those who were paid $20 to lie still thought that the task was boring (“I know that the task was boring but I got paid a lot to lie”) v s those who were paid $1 to lie thought that the task was more interesting (“I wouldn’t lie for a dollar, so maybe I really did find the task interesting.) Stereotypes: attitudes and opinions about people based on their group affiliation. Stereotype threat: Risk of confirming negative expectations about one’s own social group. Ex: If a class is given a math test, and the stereotype is that girls are not as good at math as boys, girls may face a stereotype threat and fear that they will not do as well as boys, which could inadvertently cause poor performance. Fear of acting consistently with a stereotype may become a self-fulfilling prophecy. Mere exposure effect: The more time and experience that we have to someone is associated with an increased liking of that person. Yerkes-Dodson law: Physiological arousal improves performance, up to a point. -If your arousal level is low (bored), performance is low -if it is medium (pressured, focused) performance is highest -if arousal is too high (panicking) performance is low again This also depends on the complexity of the task, amount of practice, etc. Audience may also increase arousal. Well learned things can handle more arousal.
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Conformity: Changing attitudes or behaviors to match those of group. Follow social norms, in part for acceptance. Helps society run better, but also can be uncomfortable to break out of if we want to. Ex: drinking alcohol when others are drinking. Groupthink: When high degrees of consistency and conformity in a group are highly valued, to the exclusion of opposing information and ideas. Diverging opinions are strongly discouraged. Ex: failure of the Challenger launch, opposing viewpoints were ignored by the group, and there was a sense of invulnerability due to success of past launches. Social influence: A process by which our thoughts and actions are strongly influenced by the presence of others. In ambiguous situations, we tend to behave the same way as those around us. Social Norm: Unspoken rules of society that most people comply with. Vary across culture, context, and time. -Breaking the norm may result in feelings of shame or guilt -Manipulating norms can lead to widespread behavior change.
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  • Winter '10
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