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●Roscinda Nolasquez ○Salvador Nolasquez’s (person who found some of the elders in the hills above Cupa and taken to Pala) daughter was 11 at the time and described how her people were told to visit their cemetery for the last time; to bid farewell to their homeland. the trek to Pala was less than 50 miles and three days travel but it was told that it was “unimaginably distant.” ○Cupeno ○she did not curse the ranch; blacktooth did ○She was the last speaker of the Cupeno language in Southern California ●Capitan Grande ○Kumeyaay ○owned by Baron long but is now owned by the Sycuan Band of Mission Indians ○was one of the 9 reservations set up by US Grant ○city sued to build a dam because of flooding ○moved to barona and Viejas
○anything before 1935 false ○site of an ancient village called Cullamac. The name Capitan Grande comes from the tipai leader Francisco who led the mission revolt in 1775 and made his home in the valley. The original core village sites of Capitan Grande were excluded from the new reservation established in 1875. The El Capitan people lost their land beyond the reservation boundaries to white squatters. Capitan Grande became a source for Water for the city of San Diego so San Diego displaced the Capitan Grande Indians in order to construct a dam.These Indians requested the opportunity to remove their dead and rebury them at their new homes. The Indians that resided here moved to Barona and Viejas. ●Barona, ○After thousands of years of peaceful life in the region, known today as San Diego County, Native American life was abruptly changed in the late 1700's. More than 200 years of hardship for Native Americans began with the arrival of the Spanish military and the establishment of the first presidio and mission in 1769. ○In 1875, the federal government established the Capitan Grande Reservation for the native people living in the area at that time. About 40 years later in 1932, the city literally bought the Capitan Grande Reservation to build a reservoir and the people were removed from their land. ●Viejas, ○was named the Baron Long Ranch, contained 1,609-acres and could be purchased for $125,000 ●Jamul, means sweetwaterin Indian, smallest reservation in san diego county TODAY ○Kumeyaay ○located in the Jamul valley along the old stage road linking San Diego County to Yuma and Baja California, this settlement was the remnant of a much larger village that dates back before the arrival of the Spaniards and one that played an active role in early San Diego history ○by 1920 Jamul had shrunk, the six acres was controlled by the Catholic Church and on land given to the Jamul people by John D. Spreckles ■he was the sugar magnate and financier ■Speckles deeded acreage to the Catholic Church to be held in trust for the Kumeyaay of Jamul because he had learned that they were squatters in their own land ●Mission Indian Federation ○was active in ensuring that the rights of the displaced Indians were upheld and that an adequate amount of land would be purchased for the two Indian groups ○