17 define the essence of foucaults idea that

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17. Define the essence of Foucault’s idea that sexuality is always bound up with social power. Foucault addresses the question of power in his seminal writings.Power is the ability of one entity to influence the action of another entity.Such relationships appear to exist across all scales. In The History of Sexual-ity Volume one Foucault defines power as “the multiplicity of force relations immanent in the sphere in which they operate and which constitute their ownorganisation” (1978:92). Even the simplest particles appear as no more than a stable pattern of energy and power. Foucault argues, in medieval society power had been consolidated largely through the existence of a sovereign authority who exercised absolute control over the subjects through the open display of violence. In the modern era, power is exercised in a different way. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries there was an invention of a new mechanism of power possessed of highly specific procedural techniques. This new mechanism of power is more dependent upon bodies. It is mechanism of power whichpermits time and labour, rather than wealth andcommodities. By means of surveillance power is constantly exercised. Thecommon conception is that power is attributable to and exercised by agentsand is exercised on agents. Power is a total structure of action which does notact directly and immediately on others. Foucauldean power is impersonal,purely relational and blind. His kind of power is neither force nor capacitynor domination nor authority. It is not attributable to anyone or anything.Power is impersonal because it is neither possessed nor exerted by individuals, groups, or institutions. Foucault termed power as a complex set of relations. Power is the sum total of influences that actions have on other actions. 18.J. Habermas has been influenced by Marx and Weber in particular, but he has drawn on other traditions of thought besides. What do you know about it? Habermas's theoretical system is devoted to revealing the possibility of reason, emancipation, and rational-critical communication latent in modern institutions and in the human capacity to deliberate and pursue rational interests. Habermas is known for his work on the concept of modernity, particularly with respect to the discussions of rationalization originally set forth by Max Weber. He has been influenced by American pragmatism, action theory, and poststructuralism. 19. Sociology is a scientific endeavor. What does it mean? According to Anthony Giddens (2000), “Science is the use of systematic methods of empirical investigation the analyses of data, theoretical thinking and the logical assessment of arguments to develop a body of knowledge about a particular subject matter. According to this definition, sociology is a scientific endeavor”.
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