tion of still undemarcated territories father to the north, compensation for environmental damage, and continued consultation with the Indians on dealing with the social problems certain to arise from increased road traffic and the influx of settlers. After these hearings, nothing was heard about the paving project for several months. In December 2005, however, the government institute responsible for the protection of the Amazon, IBAMA, quietly granted a preliminary licence to the Ministry of TERENCE TURNER Fig. 5. The piki tree seedling ceremony celebrated at the close of the Piaraçu meeting in March 2006, expressing the creation of a united Kayapo political community. The seedlings (two are visible, behind the speaker’s hand and below the video camera) have been planted by older chiefs, who exhort the younger chiefs facing them to continue their struggle to defend the whole Kayapo people. The ceremony is being recorded by a young Kayapo video cameraman..
8 ANTHROPOLOGY TODAY VOL 22 NO 5, OCTOBER 2006 Transport to proceed with plans for the paving of BR- 163. This was irregular, since the Environmental Impact Assessment normally required for such a licence had not yet been completed. The delay had been caused by disa- greements between the Ministry of the Environment and its agency, IBAMA, and the Ministry of Transport over the terms of the EIA. After six months the dispute was finally ‘solved’ by the Minister of the Environment, Marina Silva, who in early June produced a new ‘Plan for a sustainable BR- 163’ designed to substitute for the legally required EIA and thus allow the licence granted six months earlier to be activated (MS 06/06/06; 29/06/06). The plan contained provisions for protected forest zones beside the road but took no account of the proposals by the Kayapo for the demarcation and police protection of indigenous commu- nities located near the road. This bureaucratic manoeuvre was completed without consulting the Kayapo or any of the other indigenous or regional groups who had faithfully attended the hear- ings for the EIA and contributed their critical inputs (MS 06/06/06). The result was triumphantly announced by Lula in a speech on 6 June, followed a month later by a short report in the official Gazette of Mato Grosso that the licence had been issued and paving would proceed without reference to the legally required EIA (AA 22/12/05; MS 06/06/06, 12/06/06; A Gazeta de Cuiaba 2006). The (paved) road shall not pass! When this came to the notice of the Kayapo, they were furious. They felt that they had been betrayed by the gov- ernment’s hearings for the EIA, which they now saw as having been a ruse to distract them while the government secretly went ahead with its plans to proceed with the project without regard for the environmental and social protections, to say nothing of the consultations with them and other indigenous groups of the area, required by its own laws. Kayapo and Panara leaders from the Xingú valley met in the second week of July and agreed to take immediate action. They wrote to Lula denouncing his gov-
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- Spring '16
- Anthropology, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Kayapo