These subcultures are not closely integrated into the

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These subcultures are not closely integrated into the mainstream because lack economic resources orface discrimination or bothTherefore, these subcultures produce new and unique expressions of rebellion, disaffection (i.e. newdefinitions of what “cool” looks like or means.)Frank’s “perpetual motion machine”Disaffected and unattached Youth – Subculture Formation – New Expression of “Cool” – CorporateExploitation(i.e. from counterculture to subculture)
Marginalized, poor or working class, or discriminated against youth have enough distance frommainstream to channel their disaffection into the construction of unique subcultures which tend tooppose or counter dominant cultureCorporate America studies grunge, DIY, hard-core punk, hip hop, and so on, looking for ideas for newgoods to produce and sell, fashion trends, musicians to sign, & most importantly a new image of “cool”-looking for a new image of cooloThis new image of cool is then used to increase dissatisfaction and encourage moreconsumptionoWell known examples: hip hop (outlet for portraying wealth, coolness, etc.) & heavy metal (OzzyOsborne-heavy metal movement) Basis link of subcultures to values and norms in associationwith media and consumerism.The three elements of “cool”Originated with young people (music, video games, etc.)1.Composure, confidence, self-regard or self-assurednessMeant being seen, having confidence, coolness is associated with appearance: posture, how they walk,etc.Originates in Africa, coastal region of NigeriaTravels to North America through slaveryDuring centuries-long period of economic exploitation, racial discrimination and political oppressionwhich followed slavery: cool gradually came to mean sustaining one’s dignity in the face of pressure,cruelty and injusticeOrganized around personal appearance, posture and how a person walked and talked becauseeconomic exploitation denied many other avenues of self-expressionWhen commercialized this self-confident posture often appears to be just plain narcissism, obsessionwith individualstyle, personal appearance and so on“Fresh images of cool”2.Ironic detachment portraying an attitude of indifference, distancing oneselffrom authorities insteadof confronting them, summed up by “it is what it is”Example: Expressing disgust at political system and refraining from votingExample: “Hate-watching” – watching popular television shows by reversing serious dramatic intentand laughing at unintentional humourExample: Daily Show, Cobert, consuming the news in an ironic and detached manner3.Pleasure seeking: general pursuit of immediate gratification, pursuit of happiness, hippiesintroduced thisBelief that pleasure & happiness or the highest good and most noble pursuitThe general pursuit of immediate gratification for one’s desires without consideration of long-termconsequences or obligations to wider community

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Term
Spring
Professor
dev
Tags
Sociology, young people

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