violence on aggressive behavior have not concluded, and as long that is true, there is no way to determine whether violent content in video games leads to increased aggressive behavior. Kooijmans mentioned that exposure to violent media reinforces and increases aggressive tendencies that already exist in an adolescent. How is that possible? One could argue that adolescents discover a way to spill out their rough emotions through aggressive behavior as a mechanism to alleviate those emotions. Yet there is still the question of cause-and- effect directionality. An angry adolescent may come to like violent media with its negative effects. Violent media could reinforce and increase aggressive behavior, but it may be the anger that led the adolescent to like violent media. The major limitation of Kooijmans' argument is the lack of demonstrated causality between violent content in video games and aggressive or hostile behavior. This limitation is deepened by confusion over the definition of violence. Other than that, Kooijmans helped ongoing research on video game violence to stand out by calling for more research.
Video Game Violence and the Emerging Psychopath Sean P. Neubert Rochester Institute of Technology This paper investigated the correlations between video game exposure during puberty and aggressiveness. The primary focus of this investigation was the general aggression model (Anderson & Bushman, 2002). I will argue that aggressive and violent behavior are related to antisocial personality disorder. Antisocial personality disorder is characterized by impulsivity and indifference to the suffering of others. Aggressive behavior is quite frequent among those with antisocial personality. There are two theories regarding the origin of these behaviors, one that claims that it has a biological basis and one that claims that it is learned socially. It is possible that such behavior is related to violent video game usage. The general aggression model claims that violent video games desensitize people to aggression. A majority of violent video games provide as simulation dangerous stimuli, such as monsters or hostile enemies with weapons. Psychopaths often do not show the same fear response to threatening stimuli (this is a physiological or biological difference). Continually playing games in which the only positive outcome is the violent demise of enemies could positively reinforce antisocial behavior and perhaps even cause such a physiological difference over time. Some researchers have claimed that exposure to antisocial behavior can be a cause of antisocial behavior in others (Levenson, Kiehl, & Fitzpatrick, 1995). So, are the causes of these behaviors biological or learned? Individuals high in hostility are more likely to become aggressive when exposured to violent video games, whereas individuals low in hostility are less likely to become aggressive when exposed (Gentile, Lynch, Linder, & Walsh, 2004). This may lend some insight into the differing theories on the causes of antisocial behavior. Individuals high in
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