Suffrage amendment with purpose of disfranchisement set precedent several other states●Poll tax, disqualification for convicts, required persons to read and understand state constitution■South Carolina; “Pitchfork Ben” Tillman●The Black Response ○Bitterly denounced racist amendments; unable to garner white support●Effective Disfranchisement ○By 1910, blacks effectively disenfranchised in North Carolina, Alabama, Virginia, Georgia, and Oklahoma ●Back to Slavery○“White Primary” excluded blacks by party rules○Blacks had no political clout●Plessy v. Ferguson1895 Supreme Court case upheld segregation doctrine of “separate but equal” ●White Man’s Country “Insider” and “Outsider” status based on racial identity sanctioned by legal process Public spaceconsidered white private property●Segregated transportation evoked most notable challenges to Jim CrowConfronting the Urban Color Line●Confronting the Urban Color line○Rapid growth of blacks in urban cities, More economic and social opportunities; More prominent color line
●Employment and Unions○Difficult for blacks to find jobs and join unions in cities●Housing○Difficulty finding housing exaggerated by segregation; created congestion●Transportation: Introduction of Jim Crow streetcars brought on black boycotts and protests ○Black women played primary roleAmerica’s Empire of Color ●The United States Expands○U.S. imperialist ambitions focused on lands and resources of world’s darker-skinned peoples○“Scramble for Africa”○Hawaiian Islands and other small pacific islands●The Caribbean ○U.S. increasingly interested in South America and Caribbean ■Cuba■Sinking of the MaineThe Spanish American War●Some African Americans enlisted in the army●Some were vocal anti-imperialists●Black troops were treated poorly during the war but had much success in battle Reinforced the Rough Riders●Early Commercial Trade Networks ●West African Trade Routes○Ecological conditions necessitated specialization and trade○Trans-Saharan trade connected West Africans with people and goods from distant places○Gold, Africa’s most valuable trade item○Reginald Lewis○The Berbers “converted many of the merchants of West Africa to Islam, but most of the common people retained their traditions●Interregional Trade ○Ethnic groups linked into regional networks by inland waterways○Trade facilitationRise of Empires in West Africa ●Against this background, there arose a number of kingdoms and empires starting in the 5th century through to the 16th century.●Common to each of the great empires was extensive trans-Saharan trade with the north●Large standing armies●An effective system taxation Trade ●The ancient West Africans, like Native Americans “believed that many gods existed in nature”
●They did not accept the Muslim belief in one god.