Merozoites then infect red blood cells rbcs these

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Merozoites then infect Red Blood Cells (RBCs). These Merozoites replicate and eventually rupture the RBCs, releasing more Merozoites and considerable RBC Debris into the Bloodstream. Merozoites consume from 25% to 75% of the Hemoglobin in an RBC. Even if as few as 1% of RBCs are Infected, then a Total of 100,000,000,000 RBCs will be Infected. Some Merozoites differentiate into Female Gametocytes (G= marriage cell) and Male Gametocytes, which develop into Microgametes (G= small marriage) and Macrogametes (G= large marriage) , respectively, when ingested by a Mosquito. These unite and form an Ookinete (G= moving egg) that migrates and becomes an Oocyst (G= egg cell) , which in turn undergoes Meiosis to produce Sporozoites, which migrate to the Mosquito ʼ s Salivary Glands. The incredibly characteristic Symptoms of Malaria include Periodic Chills and Fever, as well as Anemia both due to the Loss of Hemoglobin to growing Merozoites and to the Loss of RBCs upon Release of Merozoites. It should come as no Surprise that another incredibly characteristic Symptom of this Systemic Blood Infection is -- A. • Lymphadenopathy (G= enlarged lymph nodes) . • The Lymph Nodes are Central Lymphoid Organs that provide Centralized Sites for Antigen-Lymphocyte Interactions. B. • Lymphadenopathy (G= enlarged lymph nodes) . • The Lymph Nodes are Generative Lymphoid Organs that provide Sites in the Periphery for Antigen-Lymphocyte Interactions. . C. • Splenomegaly (G= enlarged spleen) . • The Spleen is a Peripheral Lymphoid Organ and an Immune Response to Systemic Pathogens usually originates in the Spleen. D. • Splenomegaly (G= enlarged spleen) . • The Spleen is a Primary Lymphoid Organ and an Immune Response to Systemic Pathogens usually originates in the Spleen.
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MIC 101 Exam 2 Page 9 10. Normal Hemoglobin (Hemoglobin A) is composed of 4 Chains: Two α Chains and two β Chains. The Sickle-Cell Form of Hemoglobin (Hemoglobin S) involves a single Amino Acid Substitution on the β Chain: Glutamic Acid at Position 6 is replaced by a Valine. This Hydrophobic Valine tends to bind to a Pocket on an adjacent Hemoglobin S β Chain, but this Pocket is only accessible in Deoxyhemoglobin S (Deoxygenated Hemoglobin S). These β Chain- β Chain Interactions form insoluble Filaments that distort Red Blood Cells (RBCs). In an Individual with Sickle-Cell Anemia (Homozygous for Sickle-Cell Hemoglobin), sickling occurs under normal, physiologically-induced Oxygen Levels. Sickled RBCs cannot pass through Capillaries, resulting in Intense Pain, Inflammation and Necrosis. Mechanical Distortion of RBCs also results in breakage, leading to Hemolytic Anemia. This Condition is generally Fatal. In an Individual with the Sickle-Cell Trait (Heterozygous for Sickle-Cell Hemoglobin), sickling occurs only under Environmentally-induced low Oxygen Levels (such as High Altitude; Aircraft Cabin Cruise Pressure [9,500 Ft.
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