4.Explain the similarities in sexual reproduction of amphibians (frogs and salamanders), bryophytes (nonvascular plants, and seedless vascular plants. Then explain the similarities in sexual reproduction of reptiles (snakes and turtles) and gymnosperms.
5.Compare and contrast the seeds of gymnosperms (pine), Monocots (corn), and Eudicots (bean)—include the similarities and differences in the three main parts of all seeds. Gymnosperms Monocots Eudicots Seed Coat Develops from integument (Outer layers of ovule) Dormant sporophyte embryo ● No cotyledons ● Contains 1, 2, or several cotyledons for photosynthesis or storage ● Epicotyl → Develops into upper portion of plant ● Hypocotyl → Develops into lower portion of plant Energy Storage ● Provided from female gametophyte ● Uses endosperm during germination ● Uses endosperm for development of embryo ● Use cotyledons for energy during germination 6. Explain the evolutionary development of seeds, secondary tissues, and pollen that have occurred from seedless vascular plants to gymnosperms—include major extinct groups. Seedless vascular plants Extinct groups Gymnosperms Progymnosperm (seedless vascular plants) Seed ferns (gymnosper ms) Other extinct group of Gymnosperms No Seed No secondary growth No pollen No seed Secondary growth No pollen Seed More or less secondary growth No pollen Pollen Seed Secondary growth Pollen
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