O this edict was rescinded after his death by his

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o This edict was rescinded after his death by his brotherLeopold II who needed support of the nobles.· Freedom of religion and civic rights to Protestants andJews· Reduced the influence of the Catholic Churcho Suppressed monasteries· Allowed freedom of the press to a significantdegree· Reformed the judicial system and sought tomake it equal for all citizens· Abolished torture and ended the death penalty· Expanded state schools· Established hospitals, insane asylums, poorhouses andorphanageso State provided food and medicine to thepoor· Made parks and gardens available to the public· Made German the official language of the empire in aneffort to assimilate minoritiesd. Empire declined under Joseph’s reign· Austria defeated several times in wars with the OttomanEmpire· Austrian Netherlands in revoltUnit 4 Notes/p.8
· Russia was threatening Austria’s interests ineastern Europe and the Balkans· Leopold II was forced to reverse many ofJoseph’s radical reforms in order to maintaineffective control of the empire.18th Century Economy and SocietyI.The Agricultural Revolution(17th and 18thcenturies)A. The state of agriculture in 17001. Peasants and artisans had about the same standardof living as in the Middle Agesa. Most people battled hunger and lacked sufficientclothing and decent housingb. Agriculture had changed little since the MiddleAges2. 80% of western Europe’s population were farmers;percentage was even higher in eastern Europe· The Netherlands was the only exception; moreurban and mercantile3. Agricultural output was very low compared tomodern standardsa. Medieval open field system was predominantb. Failed harvests occurred once or twice a decade,on average resulting in faminesc. People were malnourished, making them moresusceptible to diseased. Science was essentially a branch of theology andhad no real application in agriculture4.Open field systema. Common lands were open and strips of land foragriculture were not divided by fences or hedgesb. Open fields were farmed as a communityc. Agriculture in villages changed little fromgeneration to generation; based largely on communityand family traditionsd. Exhaustion of soil was a common probleme. Eventually, 1/3 to ½ of lands were allowed to liefallow on any given year so that the soil could recoverf. Villages maintained open meadows for hay andnatural pastureg. Peasants were often taxed heavilyh. Serfs in eastern Europe were far worse off thanfarmers in western Europe5. In the 18th century, England, the Netherlands andFrance became leaders for increased agriculture,industry and trade that resulted in population growthB. Features of the Agricultural Revolution1. Increased production of food- Increased crop andanimal yields could feed more people2. New methods of cultivation-Crops were grown onwastelands and uncultivated common lands3. Selective breeding of livestock-Led to bettercultivation as a result of healthier animalsC. Science and technology was applied to agriculture

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