Carnegie mellon 8 bryant and ohallaron computer

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Carnegie Mellon 8 Bryant and O’Hallaron, Computer Systems: A Programmer’s Perspective, Third Edition x86 Clones: Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) Historically AMD has followed just behind Intel A little bit slower, a lot cheaper Then Recruited top circuit designers from Digital Equipment Corp. and other downward trending companies Built Opteron: tough competitor to Pentium 4 Developed x86-64, their own extension to 64 bits Recent Years Intel got its act together Leads the world in semiconductor technology AMD has fallen behind Relies on external semiconductor manufacturer
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Carnegie Mellon 9 Bryant and O’Hallaron, Computer Systems: A Programmer’s Perspective, Third Edition Intel’s 64 -Bit History 2001: Intel Attempts Radical Shift from IA32 to IA64 Totally different architecture (Itanium) Executes IA32 code only as legacy Performance disappointing 2003: AMD Steps in with Evolutionary Solution x86- 64 (now called “AMD64”) Intel Felt Obligated to Focus on IA64 Hard to admit mistake or that AMD is better 2004: Intel Announces EM64T extension to IA32 Extended Memory 64-bit Technology Almost identical to x86-64! All but low-end x86 processors support x86-64 But, lots of code still runs in 32-bit mode
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Carnegie Mellon 10 Bryant and O’Hallaron, Computer Systems: A Programmer’s Perspective, Third Edition Our Coverage IA32 The traditional x86 For 15/18-213: RIP, Summer 2015 x86-64 The standard shark> gcc hello.c shark> gcc m64 hello.c Presentation Book covers x86-64 Web aside on IA32 We will only cover x86-64
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Carnegie Mellon 11 Bryant and O’Hallaron, Computer Systems: A Programmer’s Perspective, Third Edition Today: Machine Programming I: Basics History of Intel processors and architectures Assembly Basics: Registers, operands, move Arithmetic & logical operations C, assembly, machine code
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Carnegie Mellon 12 Bryant and O’Hallaron, Computer Systems: A Programmer’s Perspective, Third Edition Levels of Abstraction C programmer Assembly programmer Computer Designer C code Caches, clock freq , layout, … Nice clean layers, but beware… Of course, you know that: It’s why you are taking this course.
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