Can pay them half as much as we will have to pay a

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can pay them half as much as we will have to pay a man, and we can give them all this other ‘crap’ work to do because they are women.” 2) Women tend to be concentrated in low-wage occupations and industries - Occupational sex segregation : The concentration of women in certain occupations and men in others - Particularly strong for women of colour, Aboriginal women and disabled women 3) Heavy domestic responsibilities reduce women’s earnings - 2003 - Single, unmarried women made 93 cents for every dollar earned by men - Married women with children earned approx. 70.5 cents for every dollar earned by men - Result of women having heavy domestic responsibilities - Often take part time jobs with less pay and benefits in order to fulfill domestic responsibilities 4) Work done by women is commonly considered less valuable than work done by men, because it is viewed as involving fewer skills - Ex. Kindergarten teachers (predominantly female) learn less than machine repair technicians (mainly men) - which requires more skill? - Society undervalues skills needed for jobs in which women are concentrated Male Aggression Against Women - Acquaintance rape : A sexual assault involving intercourse committed by someone the victim knows
- Why is aggression/sexual assault common among men? - Not that men are inherently more aggressive - Only when norms justify male domination and men have much more social power over women - When men and women are more equal socially and norms justify gender equality, the rate of male aggression against women is lower - Sexual assault - Sociologists suggest that sexual assault is not always about sexual gratification - Some offenders don’t even reach orgasm - All forms of sexual assault involve domination and humiliation as principal motives - Not surprising that many offenders were sexually or physically abused in their youth - Deep need to feel powerful as psychological compensation for their early powerlessness - Not always psychological - In war, conquering male soldiers often feel justified humiliating the vanquished - Ex. Yugoslavia in the 1990’s - Fraternities - Try to recruit members who can reinforce a macho image and avoid any suggstion of effeminacy and homosexuality - Houses that are more prone to sexual assault sponsor parties that treat women in a degrading way - Athletics - Many sports embody a particular vision of masculinity (competitive, aggressive, domineering) - Male athletes that participate in contact sports are more prone to be rapists than other athletes - Sexual assault involves the use of sex to establish dominance - Highest in situations in which early socialization experiences predispose men to want to control women, where norms justify domination of women, and where a big power imbalance between men and women exist - Sexual harassment
- Quid pro quo sexual harassment (“something for something”) : Takes place when sexual threats or bribery are made a condition of employment decisions - Hostile environment sexual harassment : Involves sexual jokes,

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