seen as non normative they cannot be seen as an innocent victim and therefore

Seen as non normative they cannot be seen as an

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seen as non-normative, they cannot be seen as an innocent victim and therefore they do not experience justice equal to white women. In addition to the privileging of dominant interests by the anti-violence movement, another way that that movement has been weakened in its ability to provide service to vulnerable women is through cooptation by the state. Richie names the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) which was seen as a major legislative accomplishment by the mainstream anti-violence movement. VAWA provided training and guidelines for police officers and mandated that they take tangible action as opposed to treating it as a private matter unsuited to the legal sphere. However, VAWA also had very negative effects for communities of Color, including increased policing and incarceration through mandatory arrest laws (85-86). Richie also points out that the mainstream anti-violence movement was coopted by the state through funding that reinforces the relationship to carceral feminism. The conditions by which the anti-violence movement has been taken over include the privileging of the interests of the elite in order to appeal to the mainstream, receiving funding for services, and influencing legislation, as well as the movement away from the local leadership of women, who are personally invested in ending women’s oppression towards specialized professionals in a bureaucratic industry. Adding to this discussion, Andrea Smith explains that the nonprofit industrial complex is part of the reason why the mainstream movement is incapable of effecting the types of changes that would attack the underlying reasons for male violence against women. The phrase “nonprofit industrial complex” refers to the shift from community- based grassroots organization to the professionalization of social justice work whose accountability is to the government and funders, rather than to the community being served. As bell hooks notes, integration and legal rulings against racist systems do not always benefit communities of Color. Sometimes Black communities thrive under care from
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24 their own communities rather than being made to engage with a dominant white community hooks argues that prior to the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education ruling, there were benefits of being in an all-black school. Despite the clear disadvantages posed by the disingenuous 1896 Plessy vs. Ferguson “separate but equal” schools, where black schools were clearly disadvantaged in comparison with white schools, the students did not have to face interpersonal racism in school. Black teachers sincerely cared for their Black students, and as hooks argues, this created a sacred space. Today, despite legal provisions against public discrimination, there are many ways communities of Color can still be discriminated against.
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25 POLITICS AND ACADEMIC FEMINISMS The women’s movement has always been a political endeavor. As the quality and character of the political context changes, the responses to oppression must also change. One such response to change involved the women’s movement’s embrace of the academy. There are
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  • Summer '19
  • Maria Yvonne Dy

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