2 ionic bonding 3 lattice energy 4 isoelectronic

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2. Ionic bonding 3. Lattice energy 4. Isoelectronic series 5. Covalent bonding 6 Electronegativity and bond polarity 6. 7. Lewis structures 8. Formal charges 9. Resonance, octet violations 10. Bond strengths 11 O idation n mber S. Ensign, Chem. 1210 82 11. Oxidation number S. Ensign, chemical bonding
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Oxidation number • The “charge” that results when electrons in a covalent The charge that results when electrons in a covalent bond are assigned to the more electronegative atom Increase EN 83 S. Ensign, chemical bonding
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Rules for assigning oxidation numbers 1. For an atom in it’s elemental form, oxidation # = 0 For an atom in it s elemental form, oxidation # 0 2. For a monatomic ion, oxidation # = ion charge 3. For binary compounds of nonmetals: Assign the element with greater electronegativity the “ion charge” it would have if it was in an ionic compound charge it would have if it was in an ionic compound 4 The sum of oxidation #s is 0 in a neutral compound 4. The sum of oxidation #s is 0 in a neutral compound, while the sum is the overall charge for polyatomic ions 84 S. Ensign, chemical bonding
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Common oxidation states Element Ox. State in cmpds F Always -1 O Usually -2 (ex. w/ F), -1 in peroxides Cl, Br, I Usually -1 (except w/ F and O) H +1 w/ nonmetal; -1 w/metal 85 S. Ensign, chemical bonding
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A fail proof way to assign oxidation numbers in binary compounds 1. Assign the element with greater electronegativity the “ion charge” it would have if it was in an ionic compound. Write this number below the element symbol in the Write this number the element symbol in the chemical formula 2. Write the sum of the “ion charges” for all the atoms of that element in the chemical formula above the element symbol 3 Determine the “total ion charge” necessary for all atoms 3. Determine the total ion charge necessary for all atoms of the other element to give the overall charge present on the molecule or polyatomic ion. Write this number b th d l t above the second element 4. Divide the “total ion charge” written above the second element by the number of atoms of that element in the element by the number of atoms of that element in the formula to get its oxidation number. Write this below the element symbol 86 S. Ensign, chemical bonding
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Oxidation numbers in molecules of nonmetals containing three or more atoms containing In nonmetals, H always is given an oxidation b f 1 t t b i i 1 t h number of +1, so start by assigning +1 to each hydrogen Assign the other nonmetals oxidation numbers with priorities based on highest electronegativity (e.g. O first, then N, the S, then C) using the strategy described for binary compounds 87 S. Ensign, chemical bonding
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A fool proof way to assign oxidation numbers in binary compounds 1. Assign the element with greater electronegativity the “ion charge” it would have if it was in an ionic compound. Write this number below the element symbol in the chemical formula 2 Write the sum of the “ion charges” for all the atoms of that element in the 2. Write the sum of the “ion charges” for in the chemical formula above the element symbol 3.
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