Development of self esteem: childhood (expectations can be in home, good or bad behavior, at school), later childhood (social comparison see getting better grades than other kids in our class, doing better in gym, but if not doing that, have lower sense of self esteem), internal standards (self- concept, set goals, if realistic then have higher levels of self esteem, if very high and unrealistic, never reach goals and self esteem would be adversely effected) Criticism and failure feedback: following failure feedback people with low self-esteem, if negative feedback aligns how they view themselves, leads to low self-esteem poorer performance and give up; high self esteem, less likely to give up and try just as hard Following failure in 1 area (eg. Math or reading; then look at how they see themselves in different areas): with low self esteem, generalize failure to other areas of their lives (things are interconnected); high self esteem, focus on success in other areas Protecting vs enhancing self: high self esteem enhance self concept via risk taking and striving for successes (don’t get into grad school they will try again); low self esteem protect self concept by avoiding failure; two strategies they may employ: defense pessimism (if already expecting failure it lessens the blow to self esteem), and self handicapping (do things to minimize impact of potential, if don’t study for final blame it on that) Variability: self esteem variability magnitude of short term fluctuations in self esteem (low stress environment, feel better about our self) due to vulnerability of one’s self worth to daily life events (see fluctuations) Body dysmorphic disorder: preoccupation with imagined deficit in appearance (or excessive concern about an actual anomaly; intense preoccupations with imagined deficit in appearance, over inflation); preoccupation causes marked distress and impairment (only goes out in the dark; gone through multiple surgeries); treated through cognitive behaviour theory, to view themselves in a more realistic manner, high impact on self esteem Self esteem and BDD: study goal examine self esteem in a sample of 93 patients with BDD; main findings: patients with BDD had very low self esteem and more delusionality and link between low self esteem and BDD accounted for by major depression (link btw self esteem and BDD are correlated by having major depression); addressing BDD in therapeutic contexts may involve focusing on aspects of depression, self esteem and ways of thinking Social identity (key features): continuity stability in who you are and how you present, stability across time and contrast aspects of identity that make you different, unique Identity criss anxiety about defining one’s individuality and social reputation (2 forms of identity crises, deficits and conflicts Identity deficit when identity not adequately formed can lead to vulnerabilities (e.g. join certain cults, more vulnerable to what people may say/do)
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