Gives Royal Assent to acts of Parliament Appointments o Cabinet o Senators o

Gives royal assent to acts of parliament appointments

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Gives Royal Assent to acts of Parliament-AppointmentsoCabinetoSenatorsoJudgesoPMoMay ask Queen to appoint extra senators1925 KING-BYNG AFFAIR-Government under king had fewer seats than opposition conservative party-Liberals kept in power as minority government by progressives and those who did not support conservative government-Right of sitting PM to go back to HOC to ask if they support, King did this-HOC going to vote against liberals-King asked for election, Byng refusedHEARD-Did GG Michaëlle Jean make the right decision to prorogue parliament in the 2008 crisis?-PM’s actions undermine most fundamental principle of parliamentary system:oThat government must win and maintain HOC confidence-He intended to prevent parliament from expressing lack of confidence which goes againstconvention about how confidence of votes must be heldMALLORY-Bound to act on minister’s advice, who are legally responsible for actions-Prerogative powers
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oRight and duty to find PM if office becomes vacantoRecognize working principles of parliamentary governmentoCan dismiss provincial governmentsoCan refuse to grant dissolution of parliament HOUSE OF COMMONS-Basic principle is parliamentary supremacy/sovereignty-Review financial initiatives-Provides alternative government by enabling opposition to present its case-Role in policymakingoRaises questions in initiation phraseoLegitimation phaseoExtended debate, publicizing advantages and disadvantages ACCOUNTABILITY-Provide government with political legitimacy by holding them accountable-Difficult becauseoStrong party disciplineo“adversarialism”MP HIGH TURNOVER-Average MP is newcomer likely to leave in 10 years-40% average turnover-Short-term amateursPARTY DISCIPLINE-MPs of each party vote together-Why?oNatural cohesiveness among organized groupsoDeference to party leaderoImage of party unityoProspects of promotionoSanctions for disloyal behavioroPromote accountability of electorate-MPs speak mind inside caucus meetingsPOSSIBLE REFORM-Relax discipline o3 whips system-Constructive non-confidence vote requirement-Limitations of “omnibus bills”-2/3 requirement for prorogation-Fixed dates for elections-Fixed opposition days-Post-legislative preview
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-Controls on time limitations/closure-By-elections not at discretion of PM-Have HOC elect GG/make appointments that PM currently doesAUCOIN-Is concentration of powers in PM and Cabinet essential prerequisite of contemporary parliamentary democracy?-Excessive centralization can damage good democratic government -Can be concentrated more than what is required for government to work effectively -Canada suffers from dangerous level of PM power over HOC-Democratic deficitoGap between how the system of parliamentary democracy was supposed to work in principle and how it actually worked in practice-Personal and partisan interests of MPs too intertwined to produce opposition-Westminster systemo
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