Sky or by the placement of a material in a line such

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sky; or by the placement of a material in a line, such as a fence. Figure 1 shows common landscape lines, including bedlines, hardscape lines, path lines, sod lines, and fence lines. Lines can have one or more characteristics, such as those described below, but they typically serve different purposes. F I G U R E 1 . Lines in the landscape Basic Principles of Landscape Design 1
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2 PROPERTIES OF LINES The properties of lines determine how people respond to the landscape, both emotionally and physically. Straight lines Straight lines are structural and forceful; they create a formal character, are usually associated with a symmetrical design, and lead the eye directly to a focal point. Diagonal lines are straight lines with an intentional direction. Straight lines are most often found in hardscape edges and material. Curved lines Curved lines create an informal, natural, relaxed character that is associated more with nature and asymmetrical balance. Curved lines move the eye at a slower pace and add mystery to the space by creating hidden views. Vertical lines Vertical lines move the eye up, making a space feel larger. An upward line can emphasize a feature and has a feeling of activity or movement. Vertical lines in the landscape include tall, narrow plant material, such as trees, or tall structures, such as an arbor or a bird house on a pole. Horizontal lines Horizontal lines move the eye along the ground plane and can make a space feel larger. Low lines are more subdued and create a feeling of rest or repose. Horizontal lines can spatially divide a space or tie a space together. Low lines are created by low garden walls, walkways, and short hedges. Lines are used to draw forms on a plan. In plan view, they define plant beds and hardscape areas. Lines are also created by the vertical forms of built features and plant material. There are three primary line types that create form in the landscape: bedlines, hardscape lines, and plant lines. Bedlines are created where the edge of the plant bed meets another surface material, such as turf, groundcover, gravel, or patio pavers. Bedlines connect plant material to the house and hardscape because the eye follows the line, moving the gaze through the landscape. Hardscape lines are created by the edge of the hardscape, which delineates the built structure. Line can also be created by long and narrow materials, such as a fence or wall. Form Shape is created by an outline that encloses a space, and form is the three-dimensional mass of that shape. Form is found in both hardscape and plants, and it is typically the dominant visual element that spatially organizes the landscape and often determines the style of the garden. The form of structures, plant beds, and garden ornaments also determines the overall form theme of the garden. Formal, geometric forms include circles, squares, and polygons.
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