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site.)The rest of the candidates will drop out and leave it to the top two. It has been argued that runoffprimaries tend to hurt minority candidates. Do you think that politics would be any different if we had aclosed primary, where only Democrats could vote in the Democratic Primary and only Republicans couldvote in the Republican Primary? What if nominees were chosen by a convention rather than a primaryelection?Lecture:AUDIOStates by Type of PrimaryClosedSemi-closedSemi-openOpenTop-TwoConnecticutAlaskaAlabamaHawaiiLouisianaDelawareArizonaArkansasIdahoCaliforniaFloridaGeorgiaMichiganWashingtonKentuckyColoradoIllinoisMinnesotaMaineIowaIndianaMissouriNebraskaKansasMississippiMontanaNevadaMarylandOhioNorth Dakota
New JerseyMassachusettsSouth CarolinaVermontNew MexicoNew HampshireTennesseeWisconsinNew YorkNorth CarolinaTexasOklahomaOregonVirginiaPennsylvaniaRhode IslandSouth DakotaUtahWest VirginiaWyomingRequired Written Lecture 2-21: Elections-Characteristics of Primary ElectionsCharacteristics of Primary Elections in Texas1) Low Turnout- As in all other states, turnout (the percentage of eligible voters who actually vote) inprimary elections in Texas is usually much lower than the turnout in general elections. For example, in2014, turnout in the Democratic primary was under 4 percent and in the Republican primary was under tenpercent. Turnout in the general election in 2014 was 33.7 percent.2) Most Elections do Not have Serious Primaries.While primary elections are important, most offices donot have highly contested primaries. This is especially true if someone is anincumbent(person seekingre-election to an office he or she already holds). It is very rare for someone in a political party to challengethe incumbent of his or her own party in a primary.3) When Challenged in a Primary, Incumbents win.In the rare case that someone does decide tochallenge an incumbent candidate in his or her party's primary election, they seldom win. Incumbents winprimaries more than ninety percent of the time. In order to lose a primary, an incumbent usually needs to beinvolved in some type of scandal.4) Name Recognition wins Primaries.While the best predictor of who will win a general election ispolitical party (if most voters in the state or district are Republican, the Republican candidate will likely winand the same for Democrats in Democratic districts). Because all candidates in the party primary are of thesame party, the best predicter of who will win is name recognition- if voters know the person's namebecause they are an incumbent or a TV star (Donald Trump) or an athelete.Required Written Lecture: Elections 2-22-General Elections
The General election in 2014 was typical of modern elections in Texas. Republicans swept all major offices,winning a majority of the votes for Governor (Greg Abbott), Lt. Governor (Dan Patrick), Attorney General(Ken Paxton) and a majority of the seats in the Texas House and the Texas Senate.

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Term
Spring
Professor
Millsap
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