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Protein synthesis: structure in the cell that is responsible it the ribosome. Different betweenprokaryotes and eukaryotes. Prokaryotes have 70s ribosomes. Eukaryotes have 80s ribosomes. Withinthe eukaryotic cells, the mitochondria in the chloroplasts will also have a 70s ribosome. Structure of prokaryotic vs eukaryotic cellCompare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cellsNAG and NAM: apart of the bacterial cell wall. Made of peptidoglycan. NAG and NAM are thedisaccharides of the cell wall. Two simple sugars stuck together. Form alternating chains. NAG-NAM-NAG-NAM-etc. Can lay chains of NAG and NAM next to each other and connect them with polypeptides.Horizontally, the polypeptide is the cross-bridge, and the side chain connects them vertically. NAG andNAM are a part of the cell wall whether the bacteria is gram negative or positive. Gram positive organism: makes the peptidoglycan out of the same components as the gram negative.Puts techoic acids in the peptidoglycan to further reinforce. Two types: 1)will branch throughout thewall structure and anchor into the lipid membrane. Are called lipotechoic acids. 2)only stays in the cellwall and is called the wall techoic acid IS UNIQUE TO THE GRAM POSITIVE CELL.DRAW THE GRAM NEGATIVE AND POSITIVE CELL11
FSU Microbiology NotesGram negative organism: Cell wall of the gram negative bacteria is included in the periplasmic space. Ismuch thinner. The outer membrane is not a part of the cell wall. Only peptigoglycan is in the cell wall.OM is going to have all of the same structures of a normal PM. They have lipopolysaccharides that areUNIQUE to the gram negative PM. Comprised of 3 parts: Lipid A (anchors it to the PM). Has a polarhead group and 10-12 fatty acid tails (determine how much damage it can cause to the host). Is anendotoxin. Core polysaccharides are attached to lipid A. The O polysaccharides (outer) are attached tothe core polysaccharides. Care about O polysaccharides because it’s the O antigen. H antigen is theflagella. DRAW THE LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE STRUCTURE.BACTERIAL MOTILITY:3 structures that bacteria use to get around. Flagella, pilli, endoflagella (axial filament). Axial filaments:is an internal structure (in the periplasmic space). Only seen in spirochetes. Entire cell rotates due toaxial filament rotation. So the cell is allowed to bore into materials. Pilli: are external. Flagella: areassociated with swimming (running)(clockwise) and tumbling (counterclockwise). Flagella has threeparts: basal body (anchors flagella into the PM and cell wall of the cell), hook (curved structureimmediately outside of the cell and provides the propeller motion) and filament that is made of flagellin(polymerized protein). Pillus is associated with twitching and gliding. Is a hollow tube. Is also used fortransference of DNA through conjugation. Can happen between a gram negative and gram positivebacteria. Light Microscopy: Immersion oil is used to reduce the number of times the light bends. LABEL THE PARTS OF A MICROSCOPE AND TELL WHAT THEY’RE FOR.What is a mordant? There are two ways it can be used. What are they?Recombinant DNA: DNA from multiple sources. Bacteria, fungus, plant, etc. 12