Lower than geo centre inoculated pack studies margin

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lower than geo. centre) •inoculated pack studies : (margin of safety) known amount of MO added – Clostridium sporogenes PA3679 , treated & calculated, more resistant then C. bot so wide MoS •effect of food constituents: marcomol. protect MO ( D); acids, spices decrease MO resistance •pack 4 therm food: cans: high temp & P, no-break, herm seal, lacquer to min metal rxn w/ food; retort pouches : lamin plastic & Al, heat faster shorter 12D process nutri retention, box to min phys stress tetrapak: laminated plastic, Al & paper, sterilized w/ H 2 O 2 (no heat sterilize); glass : resis corrosion/rxn w/ food, consumer see, bulky extra protect, careful so no therm shock; plastic : herm seal for 12D process, microwave OK, ascept pack •milk processing: 1.Test for odors/MOs. 2)Centrifuge fat %. 3)homogen: fine nozzles, high P, fat suspended. 4. pasteur: 77C for 16s. Kills pathogens, not spoilers. 5)Package: UHT + tetra packs don’t need fridge. •food processing: pros: 1. safety (destroy pathogens) 2. shelf-life (destroy spoilage MO, inactivate enzy, chem rxn) only thermal processing kills/denatures 3. improved digestibility/bioavailability 4. destruction of anti- nutritional compounds (proteinase inhibitors, avidin (egg whites), thiaminase) 5. increased variety & enhanced palatability •avidin: avidin + biotin (vit B) = non- digestible complex cons: 1. possible production of undesirable (sensory) or toxic (at high doses) compounds 2. decreased nutrient value (CS – higher heat, decrease nutr value) •thiaminase: (plants, raw flesh & viscera of fish/shellfish) splits vitB1 = inactive •extent of nutrient loss: 1. type of nutrient: stability: vit less stable than minerals, minerals – physical loss only (leaching/milling); proteins & carbs: digest/bioavail, loss only after severe treatment; fats: little change after moderate process but prone to hydrolytic/oxidative rxns: prolonged storage w/ O 2 , excessive high temp/pH, enzy rxn (lipase), irradi w/ O 2 2.food properties: stability varies, acid food req less severe process less nutri loss; properties affect process: heat transfer slower in solids than liquids more time exposed to heat more nutri loss 3. processing method & conditions: thermal process (most severe), blanching vs canning, method used, cooking in water (leaching) vs steam (no leaching/milling); environ conditions: O 2 , light, heat (photo-oxidation); freezing closest preserv to fresh food; •nutrient add (all approved) : restoration (optional replacement); fortification (addition – not originally present); enrichment (gov’t enforced replacement – specific levels) FOOD BORNE DISEASE (FBD): •toxicant: poison, spectrum of effects •naturally occurring toxicant: constituents: from part of food; contaminants: become part of food – b/c of MO (food & water borne diseases) •environ occurring toxicants: human activities responsible •myths: unprocessed/organic food not harmful + possible to demand food w/ zero harm risk •toxicity: ability of chemical to damage biological system – measured by LD 50 (acute toxicity – ppm or mg/kg) •hazard: probability that injury will result from use of chemical at given exposure – 1. inherent toxicity 2. probability of exposure •acceptable daily intake:

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