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lower than geo. centre) •inoculated pack studies: (margin of safety) known amount of MO added – Clostridium sporogenes PA3679, treated & calculated, more resistant then C. bot so wide MoS •effect of food constituents: marcomol. protect MO (D); acids, spices decrease MO resistance •pack 4 therm food: cans:high temp & P, no-break, herm seal, lacquer to min metal rxn w/ food; retort pouches: lamin plastic & Al, heat faster shorter 12D process nutri retention, boxto min phys stress tetrapak:laminated plastic, Al & paper, sterilized w/ H2O2(no heat sterilize); glass: resis corrosion/rxn w/ food, consumer see, bulky extra protect, careful so no therm shock; plastic: herm seal for 12D process, microwaveOK, ascept pack•milk processing:1.Test for odors/MOs. 2)Centrifuge fat %. 3)homogen: fine nozzles, high P, fat suspended. 4. pasteur: 77C for 16s. Kills pathogens, not spoilers. 5)Package: UHT + tetra packs don’t need fridge.•food processing: pros:1. safety (destroy pathogens) 2. shelf-life (destroy spoilage MO, inactivate enzy, chem rxn) only thermal processing kills/denatures 3. improved digestibility/bioavailability 4. destruction of anti-nutritional compounds (proteinase inhibitors, avidin (egg whites), thiaminase) 5. increased variety & enhanced palatability •avidin:avidin + biotin (vit B) = non-digestible complex cons:1. possible production of undesirable (sensory) or toxic (at high doses) compounds 2. decreased nutrient value (CS – higher heat, decreasenutr value) •thiaminase:(plants, raw flesh & viscera of fish/shellfish) splits vitB1= inactive •extent of nutrient loss:1. type of nutrient: stability: vit less stable than minerals, minerals – physical loss only (leaching/milling); proteins & carbs: digest/bioavail, loss only after severe treatment; fats: little change after moderate process but prone to hydrolytic/oxidative rxns: prolonged storage w/ O2,excessive high temp/pH, enzy rxn (lipase), irradi w/ O22.food properties: stabilityvaries, acid food req less severe process less nutri loss; properties affect process: heat transfer slower in solids than liquids more time exposed to heat more nutri loss 3. processing method & conditions: thermal process (most severe), blanching vs canning, method used, cooking in water (leaching) vs steam(no leaching/milling); environ conditions: O2, light, heat (photo-oxidation); freezing closest preserv to fresh food;•nutrient add(all approved): restoration (optional replacement); fortification (addition – not originally present); enrichment (gov’t enforced replacement – specific levels) FOOD BORNE DISEASE (FBD): •toxicant: poison, spectrum of effects •naturally occurring toxicant: constituents:from part of food; contaminants:become part of food – b/c of MO (food & water borne diseases) •environ occurring toxicants:human activities responsible •myths: unprocessed/organic food not harmful + possible to demand food w/ zero harm risk •toxicity: ability ofchemical to damage biological system – measured by LD50(acute toxicity – ppm or mg/kg) •hazard:probability that injury will result from use of chemical at given exposure – 1. inherent toxicity 2. probability of exposure •acceptable dailyintake: