Movement towards reconciliation 2005 helsinki peace

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Movement towards reconciliation 2005 Helsinki Peace Accords signed Adopting local political parties MAY 19, 2016: GAM in Power: What Consequences? Creation of regional political parties GAM intimidation and violence in 2009 Use of patronage, rigged contracts, and access to spoils (Hillman, 2012, 163) Can the GAM act as a responsible political party focusing on governance and delivering public goods? Stepan - Revising Federacy: Memorandum of Understanding - Helsinki Accords Dispute resolution procedures Local political parties Amnesty, release of political prisoners, reintegration funds LOGA - Law of Governing of Aceh Challenges of DDR (Demobilization, Disarmament, and Reintegration)
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Can soldiers be demobilized and disarmed? How to integrate former soldiers into roles as civilians? Autonomy, Federalism, Unitary? What are the pros and cons of seeking autonomy? What benefits and drawbacks are there to federalism? Does a unitary state provide greater stability than the other two options? How Large Conflicts Subside 1. Overall level of violence and fatalities are down but “small scale violence remains unabated” 2. High levels of violence in the early period continue to be high now compared to those with low levels of violence 3. Security involved by the indonesian government has brought down the level of violence. Assessments of Religious and Ethnic Violence (Aspinall, 2008) 1. Secessionist Conflicts (Aceh, East Timor, Irian Jaya) 2. Urban Riots (primarily Chinese) 3. Ethnic Purges (Kalimantan) 4. Religious WArs 5. Terrorist Bombings (Bali, Jemaah Islamiyah) Aspinall’s (2011) Nine Theses on Democratization and Ethnic Conflict 1. Politicization and mobilization of ethnicity peaked during the democratic transition but subsequently declined 2. Indonesia is weakly ethnicized polity a. Weak institutionalism of ethnicity Crackdown on religion Excluding minors from attending mosques Crackdown on university students Curtailing private efforts at religious instruction Preventing “pilgrimages” and preaching in different towns Pivotal Events: 1991-Fall of Soviet Union, creation of Central asian Republics 2001-War on terror- provides rationale and justification for Chinese crackdown on Uyghurs Mid 200’s color revolutions Arab Spring (references to Jasmine were banned from Weibo)
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MAY 31, 2016 Uyghurstan: The Quest for a Uyghur Homeland Harmonious Society
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