Tariffs for sewerage services also provide insufficient incentives to reduce the degree of pollution and wastewater treatment. Tariffs do not reflect the quality of sewage treatment. Despite Kazakhstan having access to elaborate technologies, these fail to be applied and there is little permanent monitoring of water quality, or effective penalties for violations. In the agricultural sector, there are no tariffs applied to wastewater, and no incentive to maintain drainage systems. 1.3. Trans-boundary water resources Given that 45% of water resources in the Republic of Kazakhstan are replenished from external sources, cross-border co-operation is vital to water security, requiring a comprehensive, integrated, strategic and serious approach. Use and protection of trans-boundary rivers between Kazakhstan and Russia, which are the focus of this project, are governed by an agreement signed on September 7 th , 2010, between the Governments of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation. The Project aims to conduct a detailed assessment of the control the Ural River, which flows through the territory of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Kazakhstan, and into the Caspian Sea. The Ural River plays an important role in the socio-economic development of Kazakhstan. The Kazakh part of the basin is home to about one million people and its importance cannot be overestimated in preserving the ecosystems and biological resources of the North Caspian Sea. River flow mainly derives from Russian territory, where it is regulated by a number of large reservoirs, with a total capacity of 4.1 billion m 3 . Natural runoff entering the Ural River in Western Kazakhstan (coming from the Orenburg Region of Russia) is 9.3billion m 3 : of which 1.4billion m 3 is formed in Kazakhstan, and the remaining 7.9billion m 3 in the Russian Federation. 6
At an international level, the volume of water flow from Russia into the Ural River is noted by the minutes of a working group meeting, which was held by the Kazakh-Russian River Basin Commission, in the Urals, on 19 th July 1996. Under this protocol, in an average year, the Ural Mountains in the West Kazakhstan Region should contribute 7.8billion m 3 to the Ural River (around 1billion m 3 less than natural flow). In dry years, by controlling runoff, Ural reservoirs located in Russia can offer a greater flow than is provided by natural flow. Information on the flow of water from Russia into the Ural River running through Kazakhstan is given below 1 : 2 2001 2 2002 2 2003 2 2004 2 2005 2 2006 2 2007 2 2008 2 2009 2 2010 2 2011 million м 3 8 8,944 1 10,857 8 8,798 1 10,400 1 12,800 5 5,300 1 11,600 7 7,300 5 5,300 5 5,200 6 6,600 % 9 95 1 115 9 93 1 110 1 135 5 56 1 123 7 77.2 5 56 5 55 6 69.8 Every year, run-off into the Ural River reduces, bringing negative consequences for Western Kazakhstan’s economy and environment, especially in the lower reaches of the river and the northern part of the Caspian Sea. Average annual flow into the Ural River has fallen to 5.07 billion m 3 (almost 1.5-2 times less than the past average annual value). This is an extreme, below which the region will begin irreversible ecological processes, with disastrous consequences.
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- Spring '19