Its B unit production supervised by Val Lewton was responsible for very

Its b unit production supervised by val lewton was

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RKO - Bankrupt by 1933, but reorganized by a series of corporate entities. Its B unit production, supervised by Val Lewton, was responsible for very creative low-budget films by Jacques Tourneur and Robert Wise Little 3 or Minors Studios with few or no theaters. Not vertically integrated 1. Universal - Focused mostly on cheap B-films for 2nd run theaters. Primarily in horror genre. Double-bills came into existence when Depression caused decreased movie attendance, and 2 movies were shown for the price of one. Will create a huge demand for B films 2. Columbia - Founded by Harry Cohn in 1924. Frank Capra is studio's largest star and his 1934 It Happened One Night serves as prototype for new genre: screwball comedy 3. United Artists - both Columbia and UA depended on borrowing stars from other studios, avoiding long term contracts, minimizing costs. UA depended on leasing other studios facilities and technicians as well. Poverty Row - Below minors were studios that only made B films for double bills to meet increased demands. By 1935 85% of all U.S. theaters are offering double bills - B films were rented to exhibitors at a flat rate = low risk investment - Monogram, Republic, and Grand National were most important B-studios Continued Censorship - The MPPDA’s new Production Code - 1927 Dont’s and Be Carefuls not followed closely - Censorship pressures continue to be felt Payne Fund Studies - 1928: William H. Short, with a large profit grant from the Payne Fund, conducts nationwide study of influence of motion pictures on children - Became Payne Fund Studies by nationally known psychologists, sociologists and researchers between 1929-1932
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Consequences: Payne studies mobilizes anti-Hollywood movement among American bishops of Roman Catholic Church, resulting in large censorship board The Legion of Decency Response: Will Hayes creates the Production Code Administration (PCA) approved by MPPDA. Appoints prominent catholic laymen Joseph I. Breen to run it. Creates the Production Code. By 1934, code is enforced with strong penalties for releasing non-approved films. The MPPDA was created by the studios for the studios specifically to create the do’s don'ts be careful into production code. Act as a censorship board. Italian Cinema and Neorealism (1930’s-1940’s) Facism: recovering italian film industry 1927: Mussolini puts government agency LUCE in charge of distributing government controlled documentaries and newsreels 1934: General Direction of Cinema created as censorship board for all italian films & run by Luigi Freddi. 1935: Creation of state film school (centro sperimentale) and national government office for cinema (ENIC) to distribute films through government owned film chain 1937: Cinecitta (new government owned film studio) formed Cinema During Facist Regime - Italian market saturated with Hollywood films - Italian studios adopt Hollywood style for use in domestic product known as White Telephone Films - So called for the inclusion of white telephones (indicative of wealthy bourgeoisie status) - These were genre films made with high production value as escapist entertainment to compete with Hollywood productions -
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  • Spring '08
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  • History of film, Cinema of the United States, films, Experimental film, dull girl

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