14 Popkin BM Gordon Larsen P The nutrition transition worldwide obesity

14 popkin bm gordon larsen p the nutrition transition

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14. Popkin BM, Gordon-Larsen P. The nutrition transition: worldwide obesity dynamics and their determinants. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord . 2004;28(Suppl 3):S2–S9. 15. Lambert EV, Lambert MI, Hudson K, et al. Role of physical activity for health in communities undergo- ing epidemiological transition. World Rev Nutr Diet . 2001;90:110–126. 16. Monda KL, Gordon-Larsen P, Stevens J, Popkin BM. China’s transition: The effect of rapid urbanization on adult occupational physical activity. Soc Sci Med . 2007;64:858–870. 17. Malina RM, Little BB. Physical activity: The present in the context of the past. Am J Hum Biol . 2008;20:373– 391. 18. Bellisari A. Evolutionary origins of obesity. Obes Rev . 2008;9:165–180. 19. Dishman RK, Washburn RA, Heath GW. Physical Activ- ity Epidemiology . Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2004. 20. Pate RR. Historical perspectives on physical activity, fitness and health. In: Bouchard C, Blair SN, Haskell WL, eds. Physical Activity and Health . Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2007:21–35. 21. Andry N. Orthopaedia: Or, the Art of Correcting and Preventing Deformities in Children . Vol II. London: A. Millar; 1743. 22. Morris JN, Heady JA, Raffle PAB, Roberts CG, Parks JW. Coronary heart-disease and physical activity of work. Lancet 1953;ii:1053–57, 1111–20. 23. Bouchard C, Blair SN, Haskell W, eds. Physical Activity and Health . Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2007. 24. Bouchard C, Shephard RJ, Stephens T. Physical Activity, Fitness, and Health . Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 1994. 25. Kesaniemi YK, Danforth E, Jr, Jensen MD, Kopelman PG, Lefebvre P, Reeder BA. Dose-response issues con- cerning physical activity and health: an evidence-based symposium. Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2001;33:S351–S358. 26. US Department of Heath and Human Services. Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General . Atlanta, GA: Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Pro- motion; 1996. 27. Katzmarzyk PT, Janssen I, Ardern CI. Physical inactiv- ity, excess adiposity and premature mortality. Obes Rev . 2003;4:257–290. 28. Paffenbarger RS, Jr, Hyde RT, Wing AL, Hsieh CC. Physical activity, all-cause mortality, and longevity of college alumni. N Engl J Med . 1986;314:605–613. 29. Blair SN, Kohl HW, Paffenbarger RS, Jr, Clarke DG, Cooper KH, Gibbons LW. Physical fitness and all-cause mortality: A prospective study of men and women. JAMA . 1989;262:2395–2401. countries may be attenuated in the face of rising obesity and other hypokinetic diseases associated with rapid acculturation to sedentary living. Over the next few decades, the majority of the world’s population growth is projected to occur in the urban areas of Asia and Africa. 57 Not coincidentally, the costs associated with chronic diseases are also pro- jected to be the greatest in these regions. Yet, as devel- oping countries continue to experience rapid changes in urban environments, technological advancement, indus- trialization, and material prosperity, unique opportuni- ties to apply lessons learned in Western countries hold potential to make a significant contribution to lessening the burden of disease in these regions.
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