Key Terms Audience: The intended viewers or listeners of a text. Writers need to understand a text’s audience in order to compose the text in a way that meets the audience’s needs and expectations. Close Reading: Active, careful reading of a passage or passages of a text. It includes reading that examines the fine details of a text. There are three kinds of close reading: (1) reading done before a text is read, or prereading, (2) reading done while a text is read, and (3) reading done after a text is read, or postreading. Conventions: Expectations or customs that writers follow. Conventions include everything from text formatting to grammar to documenting sources to genre expectations such as paragraphing and text structure. Freewriting: An invention strategy that involves nonstop writing about a topic for a set period of time. It is helpful to avoid editing ideas and thoughts or fixating on grammar and punctuation. Simply jot down any words, ideas, or phrases that come to mind about the topic. Genre: A type or category of a text. For example, a rhetorical analysis, review, and commentary are three types of genres. Every genre of writing has specific qualities and expectations. Writers should understand a genre’s qualities in order to compose an effective text. Invention: The initial step of the writing process in which a writer considers his or her topic. This step includes idea generation and may involve prewriting strategies such as freewriting or listing. Level of Formality: The degree to which a writer chooses a formal or informal approach to a writing task. Generally, academic writing is more formal than informal, and personal writing is more informal than formal. Paraphrasing: A process in which a writer takes all or part of a text and puts it into his or her own words. Paraphrased material is generally shorter than the original text. Citing sources when paraphrasing is essential. Prewriting: The act of composing that takes place during the invention stage of the writing process. Types of prewriting include listing, freewriting, and diagramming. Rhetorical Knowledge: The ability to understand unique situations and audiences and act on this by creating texts that are appropriate for a specific purpose. A writer should determine what kind of situation and audience is required for a given written task. Rhetorical Purpose: The intention or goal writers have in mind when they write. It is a writer’s task to clearly convey that intention or goal. It is a reader’s task to uncover the purpose. Rhetorical Situation: The circumstances in which a writer or speaker communicates. It includes characteristics such as the audience, the writer or speaker’s purpose, and the circumstances that encourage the individual to communicate.
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- Fall '15
- Writing, Writer