False contractions- “Braxton-Hicks” as early as 20 wks. (painless, irregular) – stretching of the muscle; prepare their uterus for labor. Should not be uncomfortable. Braxton Hicks contractions—false contractions (like the uterus working out) that can occur any time from 20 weeks gestation; these should not hurt (that is in comparison to a real contraction); 10-15 secs, not timeable; the uterus is getting hard/balled up, some women may not even know they’re having it; you can feel/see a tightening which then relaxes, not all women have them Cervix : bluish-purplish discoloration of cervix and upper vaginal area (Chadwick’s sign) because of increased vascularity. Also increased cervical secretions. Mucous plug -protect baby from infection (starts at about 12 weeks and dislodges 38-39 wks.) Seals the endocervical canal and prevents the ascent of bacteria or other substances into the uterus
17 Goodell’s sign: increased vascularization causes the softening of the cervix Chadwick’s sign: increased vascularization is a result of hypertrophy and engorgement of the vessels below the growing uterus. Bluish/purplish color from increased vascularity. Observed by examiner, vascularity causes the cervix to soften. Increased secretions (forms mucus plug which dislodges a few days to right before labor; after it dislodges she should not go swimming or take a bath b/c that bacteria static is not there any more) and vascularity Ovaries : No more release of eggs Progesterone (smooth muscle relaxant) released by ovaries until placenta is fully functional. (To help sustain the pregnancy). Ovary and placental hormone; on rare occasions and pregnant women can get pregnant; normally eggs are not released; she may ovulate, but most of the time she will not release eggs b/c of hormone levels Vagina : Chadwick’s sign (upper area) – increased vascularity and blue discoloration Loosened connective tissue (due to relaxin release. Released during pregnancy, helps relax joints) and increased vaginal secretions (thick, white, acidic) Increased mucous Breasts : tissue increases in size and nodularity because of estrogen and progesterone. Produces colostrum (leaky from 20 wks. on) – yellow and sticky; rich in nutrients for baby. Areola and nipple darken (melanin) d/t increased MSH. Thinking about her baby, hearing a baby cry or thinking about feeding her baby can cause the “let-down” take place. This can be very embarrassing. increase in size and nodularity of breast tissue (gains 1 lb b/c of increase in ductal system) Areola and nipple area will darken during pregnancy; increase in melanocyte stimulating hormone—increase melanin which increases pigmentation of skin Colostrum-first breast milk; can be released during pregnancy, released during first few days after birth (rich in antibodies, nutrients); not a whole lot made b/c baby’s stomach is small; can be used to lubricate the nipples and promote healing of the cracked nipples; if a baby gets an
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- Fall '12
- Nursing, progesterone, Fetal heart beat