USTGOLDEN NOTES 2011 MERCANTILELAWTEAM:ADVISER:ATTY. AMADOE. TAYAG;SUBJECTHEAD:EARLM. LOUIEMASACAYAN;ASST. SUBJECTHEADS:KIMVERLYA. ONG& JOANNAMAYD.G. PEÑADA;MEMBERS:MA. ELISAJONALYNA. BARQUEZ, ANGELIR. CARPIO,ANTONETTET. COMIA, ALBANROBERTLORENZOF. DEALBAN, JOEBENT. DEJESUS, CHRISJARKACEM. MAÑO, ANNAMARIEP. OBIETA,RUBYANNEB. PASCUA, FLORANGELAT. SABAUPAN, GIANFRANCESNICOLEC. VILCHESF. TEST TO DETERMINE CONFUSING SIMILARITYBETWEEN MARKSQ: What are the tests in determining whetherthere is a trademark infringement?A:1.DominancytestFocusesonthesimilarity of theprevalent featuresofthe competing marks. If the competingtrademarkcontainsthemainoressentialordominantfeaturesofanother,andconfusionislikelytoresult, infringement takes place. (AsiaBrewery v. CA, G.R. No. 103543, 5 July1993)2.TotalityorholistictestConfusingsimilarity is to be determined on thebasisofvisual,aural,connotativecomparisonsandoverall impressionsengenderedbythemarksincontroversy as they are encountered inthe marketplace.Note:Thedominancy testonly reliesonvisualcomparisonsbetween two trademarks whereas thetotality or holistic testreliesnot only on the visualbut also on the aural and connotative comparisonsandoverallimpressionsbetweenthetwotrademarks.(Societe Des Produits Nestl, S.A. v. CA,G.R. No. 112012, Apr. 4, 2001)Q: N Corporation manufactures rubber shoesunder the trademark Jordann which hit thePhilippine market in 1985, and registered itstrademarkwiththeBureauofPatents,TrademarksandTechnologyin1990.PKCompany also manufactures rubber shoes withthe trademark Javorski which it registeredwith BPTTT in 1978. In 1992, PK Co adopted andcopiedthedesignof N Corporation sJordann rubber shoes, both as to shape and color, butretainedthetrademarkJavorski onitsproducts. May PK Company be held liable to NCo? Explain.A:PK Co may be liable for unfairly competingagainst N Co. By copying the design, shape andcolor of N Corporation s Jordann rubber shoesandusingthesameinitsrubbershoestrademarked Javorski, PK is obviously trying topass off its shoes for those of N. It is of nomomentthatthetrademarkJavorski wasregisteredaheadofthetrademarkJordann.