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31. Gentile’s learning stages model indicates that in the first stage of learning, the learner must learn to discriminate between which two types of environmental context conditions ? 32. When a person learning handwriting moves the three arm segments as if two of the segments were one, this person demonstrates an early learning characteristic known as 33. Gentile’s learning stages model indicates that in the second stage of learning, one goal of the learner is related specifically to closed skills. This goal is called 34. Ericsson and colleagues refer to the type of practice that is essential for the attainment of expertise as 35. Learners in the later stages of learning typically “freeze degrees of freedom” in their attempt to control the multiple degrees of freedom of a complex motor skill. 36. Which of the following do transfer tests in motor learning research notinvolve? 37. Performing a skill with a minimum expenditure of energy is usually associated with which stage of learning? 38. The brain areas that are active during the early stage of learning are typically not the same as the areas active in the later stages of learning. 39. If a novice and highly skilled typist were required to perform a verbal secondary task while typing on a keyboard the novice’s typing performance would be more negatively influenced than the skilled typist’s. 40. The generally accepted view about the direction of bilateral transfer between two limbs is that it is 41. The transfer-appropriate-processing theory accounts for why positive transfer occurs by stating that positive transfer is due to the similarity of the cognitive processes required by two motor skills. 42. The motor control explanation for bilateral transfer has been supported by research evidence showing 43. One of the reasons for negative transfer is the initial cognitive confusion that occurs when a person must make a different movement in a familiar environmental context. 44. The theory that indicates we select certain cues in the environment during visual search is known as the feature integration theory. 45. The general rule of thumb for predicting positive transfer between two motor skills is that the degree of positive